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Thông tư 31/2017/TT-BGTVT Quy chuẩn kỹ thuật quốc gia kính an toàn xe ô tô lốp hơi dùng cho ô tô

Số hiệu: 31/2017/TT-BGTVT Loại văn bản: Thông tư
Nơi ban hành: Bộ Giao thông vận tải Người ký: Trương Quang Nghĩa
Ngày ban hành: 22/09/2017 Ngày hiệu lực: Đã biết
Ngày công báo: Đã biết Số công báo: Đã biết
Tình trạng: Đã biết

BỘ GIAO THÔNG VẬN TẢI
--------

CỘNG HÒA XÃ HỘI CHỦ NGHĨA VIỆT NAM
Độc lập - Tự do - Hạnh phúc
---------------

Số: 31/2017/TT-BGTVT

Hà Nội, ngày 22 tháng 9 năm 2017

THÔNG TƯ

BAN HÀNH QUY CHUẨN KỸ THUẬT QUỐC GIA VỀ KÍNH AN TOÀN CỦA XE Ô TÔ, QUY CHUẨN KỸ THUẬT QUỐC GIA VỀ LỐP HƠI DÙNG CHO Ô TÔ, QUY CHUẨN KỸ THUẬT QUỐC GIA VỀ ĐẶC TÍNH QUANG HỌC ĐÈN CHIẾU SÁNG PHÍA TRƯỚC CỦA PHƯƠNG TIỆN GIAO THÔNG CƠ GIỚI ĐƯỜNG BỘ

Căn cứ Luật Tiêu chuẩn và Quy chuẩn kỹ thuật ngày 29 tháng 6 năm 2006;

Căn cứ Nghị định số 127/2007/NĐ-CP ngày 01 tháng 8 năm 2007 của Chính phủ quy định chi tiết thi hành một số điều của Luật Tiêu chuẩn và Quy chuẩn kỹ thuật;

Căn cứ Nghị định số 12/2017/NĐ-CP ngày 10 tháng 02 năm 2017 của Chính phủ quy định chức năng, nhiệm vụ, quyền hạn và cơ cấu tổ chức của Bộ Giao thông vận tải;

Theo đề nghị của Vụ trưởng Vụ Khoa học - Công nghệ và Cục trưởng Cục Đăng kiểm Việt Nam,

Bộ trưởng Bộ Giao thông vận tải ban hành Thông tư ban hành Quy chuẩn kỹ thuật quốc gia về kính an toàn của xe ô tô, Quy chuẩn kỹ thuật quốc gia về lốp hơi dùng cho ô tô, Quy chuẩn kỹ thuật quốc gia về đặc tính quang học đèn chiếu sáng phía trước của phương tiện giao thông cơ giới đường bộ.

Điều 1. Ban hành kèm theo Thông tư này:

1. Quy chuẩn kỹ thuật quốc gia về kính an toàn của xe ô tô

Mã số: QCVN 32:2017/BGTVT.

2. Quy chuẩn kỹ thuật quốc gia về lốp hơi dùng cho ô tô

Mã số: QCVN 34:2017/BGTVT.

3. Quy chuẩn kỹ thuật quốc gia về đặc tính quang học đèn chiếu sáng phía trước của phương tiện giao thông cơ giới đường bộ

Mã số: QCVN 35:2017/BGTVT.

Điều 2. Thông tư này có hiệu lực thi hành kể từ ngày 01 tháng 4 năm 2018. Bãi bỏ khoản 1, 3 Điều 1 Thông tư số 57/2011/TT-BGTVT ngày 17 tháng 11 năm 2011 của Bộ trưởng Bộ Giao thông vận tải về việc ban hành 03 Quy chuẩn kỹ thuật quốc gia về phụ tùng của xe ô tô và khoản 1 Điều 1 Thông tư số 39/2010/TT-BGTVT ngày 31 tháng 12 năm 2010 của Bộ trưởng Bộ Giao thông vận tải về việc ban hành 03 Quy chuẩn kỹ thuật quốc gia về phụ tùng của phương tiện giao thông cơ giới đường bộ.

Điều 3. Chánh Văn phòng Bộ, Chánh Thanh tra Bộ, các Vụ trưởng, Cục trưởng Cục Đăng kiểm Việt Nam, Thủ trưởng các cơ quan, tổ chức và cá nhân có liên quan chịu trách nhiệm thi hành Thông tư này./.

BỘ TRƯỞNG




Trương Quang Nghĩa

THE MINISTRY OF TRANSPORT
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THE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM
Independence - Freedom - Happiness
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No. 31/2017/TT-BGTVT

Hanoi, September 22, 2017

 

CIRCULAR

PROMULGATING NATIONAL TECHNICAL REGULATION ON SAFETY GLAZING EQUIPPED ON VEHICLE, NATIONAL TECHNICAL REGULATION ON PNEUMATIC TYRES FOR AUTOMOBILES AND NATIONAL TECHNICAL REGULATION ON OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ROAD VEHICLE HEADLAMPS

Pursuant to the Law on Standards and Technical Regulations dated June 29, 2006;

Pursuant to the Government's Decree No. 127/2007/ND-CP dated August 01, 2007 on elaboration of the Law on Standards and Technical Regulations;

Pursuant to the Government’s Decree No. 12/2017/ND-CP dated February 10, 2017 defining the functions, tasks, powers and organizational structure of the Ministry of Transport;

At the request of the Director of the Department of Science and Technology and the Director of Vietnam Register,

The Minister of Transport hereby promulgates a Circular on National technical regulation on safety glazing equipped on vehicle, National technical regulation on pneumatic tyres for automobiles and National technical regulation on optical characteristics of road vehicle headlamps.

Article 1. The following are promulgated together with this Circular:

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Code: QCVN 32:2017/BGTVT.

2.  National technical regulation on pneumatic tyres for automobiles

Code: QCVN 34:2017/BGTVT.

3.  National technical regulation on optical characteristics of road vehicle headlamps

Code: QCVN 35:2017/BGTVT.

Article 2. This Circular comes into force from April 01, 2018. Clauses 1 and 3 Article 1 of the Circular No. 57/2011/TT-BGTVT dated November 17, 2011 of the Minister of Transport and Clause 1 Article 1 of the Circular No. 39/2010/TT-BGTVT dated December 31, 2010 of the Minister of Transport are abolished.

Article 3. The Chief of the Office of the Ministry of Transport, the Chief Inspector of the Ministry of Transport, Directors General, Director of Vietnam Register, heads of organizations and individuals concerned are responsible for the implementation of this Circular./.

 

 

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QCVN 32:2017/BGTVT

NATIONAL TECHNICAL REGULATION ON SAFETY GLAZING EQUIPPED ON VEHICLE

Foreword

QCVN 32:2017/BGTVT is prepared by Vietnam Register, appraised by the Department of Science and Technology and promulgated by the Ministry of Transport together with the Circular No. 31/2017/TT-BGTVT dated September 22, 2017.

QCVN 32:2017/BGTVT replaces QCVN 32:2011/BGTVT.

QCVN 32:2017/BGTVT is prepared on the basis of QCVN 32:2011/BGTVT, TCVN 6758:2015 and UNECE 43 Revision 3 and amendments to UNECE 43 by 2015.

 

NATIONAL TECHNICAL REGULATION ON SAFETY GLAZING EQUIPPED ON VEHICLE

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+ This Regulation does not apply to glazing for lighting and light-signalling devices and instrument panels, special bullet-proof glazing, protective glazing and materials other than glazing.

+ This Regulation does not apply to doublewindows.

This Regulation applies to establishments manufacturing, trading in and importing safety glazing, establishments manufacturing, assembling and importing motor vehicles, and organizations and individuals related to testing and technical safety inspection of safety glazing.

For the purposes of this Regulation, the following definitions apply:

1.2.1. “Toughened-glass” means glazing consisting of a single layer of glass which has been subjected to special treatment to increase its mechanical strength and to condition its fragmentation after shattering.

1.2.2. “Laminated-glass” means glazing consisting of two or more layers of glass held together by one or more interlayer of plastics material; it may be:

1.2.2.1. “Ordinary laminated glass”, when none of the layers of glass of which it is composed has been treated; or

1.2.2.2. “Treated laminated glass”, when at least one of the layers of glass, of which it is composed, has been specially treated to increase its mechanical strength and to condition its fragmentation after shattering.

1.2.3. “Safety-glass faced with plastics material” means glazing as defined in paragraphs 1.2.1 or 1.2.2 with a layer of plastics material on its inner face.

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1.2.5. “Plastic glazing” is a glazing material that contains as an essential ingredient one or more organic polymeric substances of large molecular weight, is solid in its finished state and, at some stage in its manufacture of processing into finished articles, can be shaped by flow.

1.2.5.1. “Rigid plastic glazing” means a plastic glazing material which does not deflect vertically more than 50 mm in the flexibility test.

1.2.5.2. “Flexible plastic glazing” means a plastic glazing material which deflects vertically more than 50 mm in the flexibility test.

1.2.6. “Double window” means an assembly of two panes separately installed within the same opening of the vehicle.

1.2.7. “Double-glazed unit” means an assembly of two panes permanently assembled in manufacture and separated by a uniform gap.

1.2.7.2. “Asymmetrical double-glazing” means a double-glazed unit where the two component glazing are not identical (e.g., one is toughened glass and the other is laminated glass) or have different principal and/or secondary characteristics.

1.2.8. “Principal characteristic” means a characteristic that appreciably modifies the optical and/or mechanical properties of a safety glazing material in a way not without significance to the function which it is intended to perform in a vehicle. The term also covers the trade names or marks as specified by the holder of the approval.

1.2.9. “Secondary characteristic” means a characteristic capable of modifying the optical and/or mechanical properties of a safety glazing material in a way which is of significance to the function which it is intended to perform in a vehicle. The extent of such modification is assessed in relation to the indices of difficulty.

1.2.10. The term “indices of difficulty” covers a two-stage grading system applying to the variations observed in practice in each secondary characteristic. A change from index "1" to index "2" indicates the need for additional tests.

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1.2.12. “Inclination angle of a windscreen” means the angle included between on the one hand a vertical line and on the other hand a straight line passing through the top and bottom edges of the windscreen, both lines being contained in a vertical plane containing the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.

1.2.12.1. Measurement of the inclination angle shall be performed on a vehicle standing on level ground. In the case of a passenger-transport vehicle, the vehicle shall be in running order, shall be fully charged with fuel coolant and lubricant, and shall be equipped with tools and the spare wheel or wheels (if they are provided as standard equipment by the vehicle manufacturer). In the case of a passenger-transport vehicle, for that of one front-seat passenger, the mass of the driver and that of the passenger each being deemed to be 75 ± 1 kg.

1.2.12.2. Vehicles equipped with hydropneumatic, hydraulic or pneumatic suspension or with a device for automatic adjustment of ground clearance according to load shall be tested in the normal running conditions specified by the manufacturer.

1.2.13. “Group of windscreens” means a group comprising windscreens of differing sizes and shapes subjected to an examination of their mechanical properties, their mode of fragmentation and their behaviour in environmental-aggression resistance tests.

1.2.13.1. “Flat windscreen” means a windscreen exhibiting no normal curvature resulting in a height of segment greater than 10 mm per linear meter.

1.2.13.2. “Curved windscreen” means a windscreen exhibiting a normal curvature resulting in a height of segment greater than 10 mm per linear meter.

1.2.14. “Height of segment h” means the maximum distance, measured at right angles approximately to the glazing, separating the inner surface of the glazing from a plane passing through the ends of the glazing (see Annex Q, Figure 1).

1.2.15. “Type of safety glazing material” means a glazing as defined in paragraphs 1.2.1. to 1.2.7. not exhibiting any essential differences, with respect, in particular, to the principal and secondary characteristics defined in Annexes B to L and N to P.

1.2.15.1. Although a change in the principal characteristics implies that the product is of a new type, it is recognised that in certain cases a change in shape and dimension does not necessarily require a complete set of tests to be carried out. For certain of the tests prescribed in the individual annexes, glazings may be grouped if it is evident that they have similar principal characteristics.

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1.2.16. “Curvature 'r' ” means the approximate value of the smallest radius of arc of the windscreen as measured in the most curved area.

1.2.17. “HIC (Head Injury Criteria)” value means a value for the characteristics of skull-brain injury arising from the deceleration forces which result from a blunt perpendicular impact with the glazing.

1.2.18. “Safety glazing material requisite for driver visibility”

1.2.18.1. “Safety glazing material requisite for the driver's forward field of vision” means all the glazing situated in front of a plane passing through the driver's R point and perpendicular to the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle through which the driver can view the road when driving or manoeuvring the vehicle.

1.2.18.2. “Safety glazing material requisite for the driver's rearward field of vision” means all glazing situated behind a plane passing through the driver's R point and perpendicular to the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle through which the driver can view the road when driving or manoeuvring the vehicle.

1.2.19. “Opaque obscuration” means any area of the glazing preventing light transmission, including any screen-printed area, whether solid or dot-printed, but excluding any shade band.

1.2.20. “Shade band” means any area of the glazing with a reduced light transmittance, excluding any opaque obscuration.

1.2.21. “Transparent area” means the whole glazing area, excluding any opaque obscuration and any shade band.

1.2.22. “Daylight opening” means the whole glazing area, excluding any opaque obscuration but including any shade band.

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1.2.24. “Bullet resistant glazing” means glazing constructed so as to be resistant to firearms (rifles, pistols, etc.).

2. TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS

2.1. General requirements

2.1.1. All glazing materials shall be such that, in the event of shattering, the danger of bodily injury is reduced as far as possible. The glazing material shall be sufficiently resistant to the incidents likely to occur in normal traffic, and to atmospheric and temperature conditions, chemical action, combustion and abrasion.

2.1.2. Safety glazing materials shall in addition be sufficiently transparent and shall not give rise to any confusion between the colours used in roadtraffic signs and signals. In the event of the windscreen's shattering, the driver shall still be able to see the road clearly enough to be able to brake and stop his vehicle safely.

2.2. Particular requirements

All types of safety glazing shall comply with the following particular requirements:

2.2.1. As regards toughened-glass windscreens, the requirements contained in Annex B;

2.2.2. As regards uniformly-toughened glass panes, the requirements contained in Annex C;

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2.2.4. As regards ordinary laminated-glass panes, the requirements contained in Annex E;

2.2.5. As regards treated laminated-glass windscreens, the requirements contained in Annex G;

2.2.6. As regards safety glazing faced with plastics material, in addition to the relevant requirements listed above, the requirements contained in Annex H;

2.2.7. As regards glass-plastics windscreens, the requirements contained in Annex I;

2.2.8. As regards glass-plastics panes, the requirements contained in Annex K;

2.2.9. As regards double-glazed units, the requirements contained in Annex L;

2.2.10. As regards rigid plastic panes, the requirements contained in Annex N;

2.2.11. As regards flexible plastic panes, the requirements contained in Annex O;

2.2.12. As regards rigid plastic double-glazed units, the requirements contained in Annex P.

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3.1. Inspection and testing methods

Safety glazing shall undergo inspection and testing under the Circular No. 30/2011/TT-BGTVT and Circular No. 54/2014/TT-BGTVT. In the cases where any of the documents referred to in this Regulation is amended or replaced, the newest one shall apply.

3.2. Application for approval and test samples

3.2.1. Application for approval

For each type of glazing, the application for approval shall comply with the following requirements:

3.2.1.1. A technical description comprising all principal and secondary characteristics.

3.2.1.2. The following requirements shall be met:

3.2.1.2.1. In the case of glazings other than windscreens, diagrams shall show:

+ The maximum area;

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The greatest height of segment, where applicable.

3.2.1.2.2. In the case of windscreens (specifications described in Annex R)

a) A list of the models of windscreens for which approval is sought, specifying the name of the vehicle manufacturer and the type and category of the vehicle.

b) Drawings on a scale suitable for all categories, and diagrams of the windscreen and its positioning in the vehicle in sufficient detail to show:

+ The position of the windscreen relative to the R point of the driver's seat;

+ The inclination angle of the windscreen;

+ The inclination angle of the seat-back;

+ The position and size of the zones in which the optical qualities are verified and, where appropriate, the area subjected to differential toughening;

+ The developed area of the windscreen;

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+ The minimum radius curvature “r” of the windscreen.

3.2.1.2.3. In the case of double-glazed units, diagrams in a format not exceeding A4 or folded to that format, showing, in addition to the information referred to in paragraph 3.2.1.1:

+ The type of each component pane (organic, glass-glass or glass-metal);

+ The nominal width of the gap between the two panes.

3.2.2. Test samples

There should be a sufficient number of test pieces and samples of the finished pieces of the models considered.

3.3. Tests

Tests prescribed shall be carried out on the types of glazing defined in paragraphs 1.2.1 to 1.2.5 of this Regulation.

3.3.1. Safety glazing materials shall be subjected to the tests listed in the following tables:

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Tests

Windscreen

Glasspanes

Toughened glass

Ordinary laminated glass

Treated laminated glass

Glass- plastics

Toughened glass

Laminated glass

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I

I-P

II

II-P

III

III-P

IV

 

 

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PLB/2

PLB/2

-

-

PLG/4

PLG/4

-

PLC/2

-

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-

-

PLD/4.3

PLD/4.3

PLD/4.3

PLD/4.3

PLD/4.3

PLC/3.1

PLE/4

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-

-

PLD/4.2

PLD/4.2

PLD/4.2

PLD/4.2

PLD/4.2

-

-

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PLB/3

PLB/3

PLD/3

PLD/3

PLD/3

PLD/3

PLD/3

-

PLE/3

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Abrasion

-

-

PLD/5.1

PLD/5.1

PLD/5.1

PLD/5.1

PLD/5.1

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PLD/5.1

-

PLH/2

-

PLH/2

-

PLH/2

PLH/2

PLH/2 2

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PLH/2

-

-

PLA/5

PLA/5

PLA/5

PLA/5

PLA/5

-

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PLA/5

-

PLA/6

PLA/6

PLA/6

PLA/6

PLA/6

PLA/6

-

...

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PLA/6

-

PLA/7

PLA/7

PLA/7

PLA/7

PLA/7

PLA/7

PLA/7 2

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PLA/7

PLA/9.1

PLA/9.1

PLA/9.1

PLA/9.1

PLA/9.1

PLA/9.1

PLA/9.1

PLA/9.1

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PLA/9.1

PLA/9.2

PLA/9.2

PLA/9.2

PLA/9.2

PLA/9.2

PLA/9.2

PLA/9.2

PLA/9.2 3

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-

Secondary image

PLA/9.3

PLA/9.3

PLA/9.3

PLA/9.3

PLA/9.3

PLA/9.3

PLA/9.3

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-

-

Resistance to temperature changes

-

PLA/8

-

PLA/8

-

PLA/8

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PLA/8 2

PLA/8 2

PLA/8

-

PLA/10

-

PLA/10

-

PLA/10

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PLA/10 2

PLA/10 2

PLA/10

-

PLA/11

-

PLA/11

-

PLA/11

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PLA/11 2

PLA/11 2

PLA/11

Notes:

1 Furthermore this test shall be carried out on double-glazed units pursuant to Annex L, paragraph 3.

2 If coated on the inner side with plastics material.

3 This test shall only be carried out on uniformly-toughened glass-panes to be used as windscreens of slow-moving vehicles which, by construction, cannot exceed 40 km/h.

A reference such as PLD/3 (PL stands for “Phụ lục” in Vietnamese) in the table indicates the annex D and paragraph 3 of that annex, where the relevant test is described and the acceptance requirements are specified.

3.3.1.2. Plastic glazing materials shall be subjected to the tests listed in Table 2 below:

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Test

Plastics other than windscreens

Rigid plastics

Double glazing

Flexible plastics

Motorised vehicles

Trailers, semi-trailers and unoccupied vehicles

Motorised vehicles

Trailers, semi-trailers and unoccupied vehicles

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PLA/12

PLA/12

PLA/12

PLA/12

PLA/12

227 g ball

PLN/5

PLN/5

PLP/5

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PLN/5

Headform1

PLN/4

-

PLP/4

-

-

PLA/9.1

-

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-

PLA/9.1

Fire resistance

PLA/10

PLA/10

PLA/10

PLA/10

PLA/10

Chemical resistance

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PLA/11

PLA/11

PLA/11

PLA/11

Abrasion

PLN/6.1

-

PLP/6.1

-

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Weathering

PLA/6.4

PLA/6.4

PLA/6.4

PLA/6.4

PLA/6.4

Humidity

PLN/6.4

PLN/6.4

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PLN/6.4

-

Cross-cut

PLA/13

-

PLA/13

-

-

Notes:

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2 Applies only if the glazing is to be used in a location requisite for driving visibility.

3.3.2. A safety glazing material shall be approved if it meets all the requirements prescribed in the relevant provisions referred to in Tables 1 and 2.

3.4. Modification or extension of approval of a type of safety glazing material

3.4.1. Every modification of a type of safety glazing material, or in the case of windscreens every addition of a windscreen to a group, shall not have an appreciable adverse effect and, in the case of windscreens, that the new type comes within the approved group of windscreens, and that in any case the safety glazing material still complies with the requirements.

3.4.2. Where necessary, Require a further test report from the technical service responsible for conducting the tests.

3.5. Conformity of production

3.5.1. Safety glazing granted type-approval under this Regulation must be so manufactured as to conform to the approved type and meet the requirements set out in paragraphs 2.1, 2.2 and 3.1.

3.5.2. To verify that the requirements of paragraph 3.5.1 above have been met, constant or unscheduled checks must be carried out on production.

3.5.3. The checks shall be carried out on the basis of the application for approval and include compliance with the requirements of Annex S to this Regulation.

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4. IMPLEMENTATION

4.1. Time of application

- This Regulation shall apply immediately from its effective date.

- After 2 years from the effective date of this Regulation, the technical requirements shall apply to the following tests: 3.2, 5, 6, 6.4, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12 and 13 Annex A to this Regulation.

- The safety glazing tested and certified under QCVN 32:2011/BGTVT are not required to be tested and certified again if no additional tests are available under QCVN 32:2017/BGTVT.

4.2. Vietnam Register shall implement this Regulation to carry out technical safety and quality inspections of safety glazing installed on vehicles, trailers, semi-trailers and power-driven vehicles having four wheels and used for the carriage of goods.

 

Annex A

General test conditions

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1.1. The glass pane to be tested shall not be rigidly secured; it may however be fastened on an identical glass pane by means of adhesive tape applied all round the edge.

1.2. To obtain fragmentation, a hammer of about 75 g or some other appliance giving equivalent results shall be used. The radius of curvature of the point shall be 0.2 ± 0.05 mm.

1.3. One test shall be carried out at each prescribed point of impact.

1.4. The examination of the fragments shall be made using any method validated on its accuracy of the counting itself and on its ability to find the correct location where the minimum and the maximum counting shall be done.

Permanent recording of the fragmentation pattern shall start within 10 seconds and shall end within 3 minutes after the impact. The technical service shall keep the permanent recordings of the fragmentation pattern.

2. Ball-Impact Tests

2.1. 227 g ball test.

2.1.1. Apparatus

2.1.1.1. Hardened-steel ball with a mass of 227 g ± 2 g and a diameter of approximately 38 mm.

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2.1.1.3. Supporting fixture, such as that shown in Figure 1, composed of steel frames, with machined borders 15 mm wide, fitting one over the other and faced with rubber gaskets about 3 mm thick and 15 mm wide and of hardness 50 IRHD. The lower frame rests on a steel box about 150 mm high. The test piece is held in place by the upper frame, the mass of which is about 3 kg. The supporting frame is welded onto a sheet of steel of about 12 mm thick resting on the floor with an interposed sheet of rubber about 3 mm thick and of hardness 50 IRHD.

2.1.2. Test conditions

+ Temperature: 200C ± 50C;

+ Pressure: 860 to 1,060 mbar;

+ Relative humidity: 60% ± 20%.

2.1.3. Test piece

The test piece shall be a flat square of side 300+10-0 mm or shall be cut from the flattest part of a windscreen or other curved pane.

Alternatively a curved pane may be tested. In this case care shall be taken to ensure adequate contact between the safety glazing and the support.

2.1.4. Procedure

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Place the test piece in the fixture (see paragraph 2.1.1, Annex A).

The plane of the test piece shall be perpendicular, within 3°, to the incident direction of the ball.

In the case of flexible plastic glazing the test piece shall be clamped to the support.

The point of impact shall be within 25 mm of the geometric centre of the test piece for a drop height less than or equal to 6 m, and within 50 mm of the centre of the test piece for a drop height greater than 6 m.

The ball shall strike that face of the test piece which represents the outside face of the safety glazing pane when mounted on the vehicle.

The ball shall be allowed to make only one impact.

Dimensions in millimeters

Figure 1. Support for ball tests

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2.2. 2,260 g ball test

2.2.1. Apparatus

2.2.1.1. Hardened-steel ball with a mass of 2,260 g ± 20 g and a diameter of approximately 82 mm

2.2.1.2. Means for dropping the ball freely from height to be specified, or means for giving the ball a velocity equivalent to that obtained by the free fall. When a device to project the ball is used, the tolerance on velocity shall be ±1% of the velocity equivalent to that obtained by the free fall.

2.2.1.3. The supporting fixture shall be as shown in Figure 1 and identical with that described in paragraph 2.1.1 of Annex A.

2.2.2. Test conditions

+ Temperature: 20oC ± 5oC;

+ Pressure: 860 to 1,060 mbar;

+ Relative humidity: 60% ± 20%.

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The test piece shall be a flat square of side 300+10-0  mm or shall be cut out from the flattest part of a windscreen or other curved pane of safety glazing.

Alternatively, the whole windscreen or other curved pane of safety glazing may be tested. In this case care shall be taken to ensure adequate contact between the safety glazing pane and the support.

2.2.4. Procedure

Condition the test piece at the specified temperature for at least four hours immediately preceding the test.

Place the test piece in the fixture (see paragraph 2.1.1, Annex A). The plane of the test piece shall be perpendicular, within 3°, to the incident direction of the ball.

In the case of glass-plastics glazing the test piece shall be clamped to the support. The point of impact shall be within 25 mm of the geometric centre of the test piece. The ball shall strike inward face of the test piece.

3. Headform test

3.1. Headform test without deceleration measurement

3.1.1. Apparatus

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The dimensions shall be in accordance with Figure 2.

The total mass of the apparatus shall be 10 kg ± 0.2 kg.

3.1.1.2. Means for dropping the headform weight freely from a height to be specified, or means for giving the weight a velocity equivalent to that obtained by the free fall.

When a device to project the headform weight is used, the tolerance on velocity shall be ±1% of the velocity equivalent to that obtained by the free fall.

3.1.1.3. Supporting fixture, as shown in Figure 3, for testing flat test pieces. The fixture is composed of two steel frames, with machined borders 50 mm wide, fitting one over the other and faced with rubber gaskets about 3 mm thick and 15 mm ± 1 mm wide and of hardness 70 IRHD. The upper frame is held pressed against the lower frame by at least eight bolts.

3.1.2. Test conditions

+ Temperature: 200C ± 50C;

+ Pressure: 860 to 1,060 mbar;

+ Relative humidity: 60% ± 20%.

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3.1.3.1. Test on a flat test piece

The flat test piece, having a length of 1,100+5-2 mm and a width of 500+5-2 mm, shall be kept at a constant temperature of 20°C ± 5°C for at least four hours immediately preceding the test.

Fix the test piece in the supporting frames (see paragraph 3.1.3, Annex A); the torque on the bolts shall ensure that the movement of the test piece during the test will not exceed 2 mm. The plane of the test piece shall be substantially perpendicular to the incident direction of the weight.

Figure 2. Headform weight

1. Mounting rod             3. Head                2. Intermediate piece    4. Felt cover 5 mm thick

 The weight shall strike the test piece within 40 mm of its geometric centre on that face which represents the inward face of the safety glazing, and shall be allowed to make only one impact. The impact surface of the felt cover shall be replaced after 12 tests.

3.1.3.2. Tests on a complete windscreen (used only for a drop height of less than or equal to 1.5 m)

Place the windscreen freely on a support with an interposed strip of rubber of hardness 70 IRHD and thickness about 3 mm, the width of contact over the whole perimeter being about 15 mm.

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If necessary the windscreen shall be clamped to the support. The minimum recommended torque for M 20 is 30 Nm.

The support shall rest on a rigid stand with an interposed sheet of rubber of hardness 70 IRHD and thickness about 3 mm. The surface of the windscreen shall be substantially perpendicular to the incident direction of the headform weight.

Dimensions in mm

Figure 3. Support for headform tests

1. Rubber gasket    2. Bolt M20

The weight shall strike the test piece within 40 mm of its geometric centre on that face which represents the inward face of the safety glazing, and shall be allowed to make only one impact.

The impact surface of the felt cover shall be replaced after 12 tests.

3.2. Headform test with deceleration measurement

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In the case of headform tests with simultaneous determination of HIC-values the drop body is the phantom head as in Figure 4. The total mass of the phantom head should be 10,0 + 0,2 kg.

In the middle of the base plate (24) the triaxial mounting block (26) is mounted in the centre of gravity to receive the acceleration gauges (27). The acceleration gauges should be arranged vertically to each other.

The basin (18) and cover (19) situated under the base plate (24) share, to a great extent, the elastic properties of the human skull. The elastic properties of the phantom head on impact are determined by the hardness and the thickness of the intermediate ring (13) and the basin.

Figure 4. 10 kg Headform

Table 3. List of pieces for the 10 kg headform concerning Figure 4

Position No.

Number of pieces

Standard notation

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Remarks

1

1

Magnetic holding device

Steel DIN 17100

-

2

1

Vibration damper

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Diameter: 50 mm

Thickness: 30 mm

Thread: M10

3

4

HF connector BNC

 

 

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1

Hexagonal nut DIN 985

 

 

5

6

Disc DIN 125

 

 

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3

Disc DIN 125

 

 

7

6

Cylinder screw DIN 912

 

 

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3

Hexagonal nut

 

 

9

3

Disc

Steel DIN17100

Hole Diameter: 8 mm

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Thickness: 1.5 mm

10

3

Rubber ring

Rubber, hardness 60 IRHD

Hole Diameter: 8 mm

Outer Diameter: 30 mm

Thickness: 10 mm

11

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Damping ring

Packing with paper

Hole Diameter: 120 mm

Outer Diameter: 199 mm

Thickness: 0.5 mm

12

 

 

 

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13

1

Intermediate ring

Butadien-rubber, hardness IRHD about 80

Hole Diameter: 129 mm

Outer Diameter: 192 mm

Thickness: 4 mm

14

3

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Polytetra-fluorethen (PTFE)

Inner Diameter: 8 mm

Outer Diameter: 10 mm

Length: 40mm

15

3

Hexagonal nut

 

 

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3

Threaded bolt DIN 976

 

 

17

3

Screwed insert

Cast alloy DIN1709 - GD - CuZn37Pb

 

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1

Basin

Polyamid 12

 

19

1

Cover

Butadien-rubber

Thickness: 6 mm

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20

1

Guide bush

Steel DIN 17100

 

21

4

Counter sunk screw

 

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22

1

Damping ring

Packing with paper

Outer Diameter: 65 mm

Thickness: 0.5 mm

23

 

 

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24

1

Base plate

Steel DIN 17100

 

25

1

Set screw with hexagonal socket

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26

1

Triaxial mounting block

 

 

27

3

Acceleration gauge

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28

1

Wood component

Hornbeam, glued in layers

 

29

1

Cover plate

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30

1

Protective cap

Polyamid 12

 

3.2.2. Adjustment and calibration:

To perform the headform test the phantom head is fixed to the cross arm of the guide system (Figure 5) and moved to the required drop height by means of a lifting device. During the headform test the cross arm with the phantom head is released. After passing the height adjustable light barrier the phantom head is released from the cross arm, the cross arm's fall is dampened and the phantom head falls onto the sample.

No impulse may be given to the phantom head by the drop appliance or by the measuring cable, so that it is accelerated only by gravity and falls vertically.

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3.2.2.2. Equipment to calibrate the phantom head:

The drop appliance shall allow drop heights between 50 mm and 254 mm to be adjusted exactly to within 1 mm. A guide system is not necessary for these small drop heights;

A steel impact plate which is made of steel is 600 mm x 600 mm in size and at least 50 mm thick. The impact surface shall be polished:

surface roughness Rmax = 1 μm, flatness tolerance t = 0.05 mm.

3.2.2.3. Calibration and adjustment of the phantom head:

Before each test series and no later than each 50 tests within a series, the phantom head shall be calibrated and adjusted if necessary.

The impact plate shall be clean and dry and during the test shall lie non- positively on a concrete base. The phantom head is allowed to hit the impact plate vertically.

The drop heights (measured from the lowest point of the phantom head to the surface of the impact plate) are 50, 100, 150 and 254 mm. The deceleration curves should be recorded.

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The greatest deceleration az from the various drop heights on the z-axis shall lie within the limits given in Table 4 below:

Table 4. Deceleration limits

Drop height mm

Greatest deceleration az as a multiple of acceleration due to gravity g

50

64 ± 5 g

100

107 ± 5 g

150

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254

222 ± 12 g

The deceleration curves should be based on a unimodel vibration. The deceleration curve of the drop height of 254 mm shall run at least 1.2 ms and at most 1.5 ms over 100 g.

If the requirements given in paragraph 3.2.2.3. are not met, the elastic properties of the phantom head shall be adjusted by varying the thickness of the intermediate ring (13) in the base plate (24). Corrections can be carried out by adjusting the three self-locking hexagonal nuts (8) on the threaded bolts (16) with which the basin (18) is fixed to the base plate (24). The rubber rings (10) under the hexagon nuts (8) should not be brittle or cracked.

The cover (19) of the impact surface and the intermediate ring (13) should always be replaced immediately if damaged, especially when the phantom head can no longer be adjusted.

3.2.3. Supporting fixture for testing flat test pieces is as described in paragraph 3.1.3.

3.2.4. Test conditions are specified in paragraph 3.1.4.

3.2.5. Tests on complete glazing (used for a drop height between 1.5 m and 3 m). Place the glazing freely on a support with an interposed strip of rubber of hardness 70 IRHD and thickness of about 3 mm.

The glazing shall be clamped to the supporting structure by means of appropriate devices. The surface of the glazing shall be substantially perpendicular to the incident direction of the headform weight. The headform weight shall strike the glazing at a point within 40 mm of its geometric centre on that face which represents the inward face of the plastic glazing when the latter is mounted on the vehicle, and shall be allowed to make only one impact.

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After the headform test, it should be checked whether a glazing edge has moved more than 2 mm in the mount and whether the requirement for the point of impact was met. The acceleration components ax and ay should be smaller for vertical impact than 0.1 az.

3.2.6. Evaluation

The deceleration curves should be evaluated as follows:

The resulting deceleration ares(t) in the centre of gravity according to equation (1) from the measured deceleration curves ax(t), ay(t) and az(t) is to be compounded as multiples of the acceleration due to gravity.

ares (t) = ( a (t) + a (t) + a (t))1/2                                                                                                                             (1)

The time for which a deceleration of 80 g with ares is continually exceeded and the greatest deceleration of ares should be determined. The time for which a deceleration of 80 g with ares is continually exceeded and the greatest deceleration of ares should be determined.

HIC = (t2 – t1)-1.5 ( ares (t) dt)2.5                                                                                                                                (2)

The integral limits t1 and t2 should be selected in such a way that the integral takes a maximal value.

4. Test of resistance to abrasion

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4.1.1. Abrading instrument shown diagrammatically in Figure 6 and consisting of:

A horizontal turntable, with centre clamp, which revolves counter-clockwise at 65 to 75 rev/min.

Two weighted parallel arms each carrying a special abrasive wheel freely rotating on a ball-bearing horizontal spindle; each wheel rests on the test specimen under the pressure exerted by a mass of 500 g..

The turntable of the abrading instrument shall rotate regularly, substantially in one plane (the deviation from this plane shall not be greater than ±0.05 mm at a distance of 1.6 mm from the turntable periphery).

The wheels shall be mounted in such a way that when they are in contact with the rotating test piece they rotate in opposite directions so as to exert, twice during each rotation of the test piece, a compressive and abrasive action along curved lines over an annular area of about 30 cm2.

4.1.2. Abrasive wheels, each 45 to 50 mm in diameter and 12.5 mm thick, composed of a special finely-screened abrasive embedded in a medium-hard rubber. The wheels shall have a hardness of 72 ± 5 IRHD, as measured at four points equally spaced on the centreline of the abrading surface, the pressure being applied vertically along a diameter of the wheel and the readings being taken 10 seconds after full application of the pressure.

Figure 6. Diagram of abrading instrument

The abrasive wheels shall be prepared for use by very slow rotation against a sheet of flat glass to ensure that their surface is completely even.

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This voltage shall be stabilized within ±1/1,000. The instrument used to check the voltage shall be of appropriate accuracy.

4.1.4. Optical system consisting of a lens with a focal length f of at least 500 mm and corrected for chromatic aberrations. The full aperture of the lens shall not exceed f/20. The distance between the lens and the light source shall be adjusted in order to obtain a light beam which is substantially parallel.

A diaphragm shall be inserted to limit the  diameter  of  the  light beam to 7 mm ± 1 mm. This diaphragm shall be situated at a distance of 100 mm ± 50 mm from the lens on the side remote from the light source.

4.1.5. Equipment for measuring scattered light (see Figure 7), consisting of a photoelectric cell with an integrating sphere 200 to 250 mm in diameter. The sphere shall be equipped with entrance and exit ports for the light. The entrance port shall be circular and have a diameter at least twice that of the light beam. The exit port of the sphere shall be provided with either a light trap or a reflectance standard, according to the procedure described in paragraph 4.4.3 below. The light trap shall absorb all the light when no test piece is inserted in the light beam.

The axis of the light beam shall pass through the centre of the entrance and exit ports. The diameter b of the light-exit port shall be equal to 2 a.tan 4°, where a. is the diameter of the sphere. The photoelectric cell shall be mounted in such a way that it cannot be reached by light coming directly from the entrance port or from the reflectance standard.

The surfaces of the interior of the integrating sphere and the reflectance standard shall be of substantially equal reflectance and shall be matt and non- selective.

The output of the photoelectric cell shall be linear within ±2% over the range of luminous intensities used. The design of the instrument shall be such that there is no galvanometer deflection when the sphere is dark.

The whole apparatus shall be checked at regular intervals by means of calibration standards of defined haze.

If haze measurements are made using equipment or methods differing from those defined above, the results shall be corrected, if necessary, to bring them into agreement with those obtained by the apparatus described above.

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+ Temperature: 20oC ± 5oC;

+ Pressure: 860 to 1,060 mbar;

+ Relative humidity: 60 ± 20%.

4.3. Test pieces

The test pieces shall be flat squares of side 100 mm having both surfaces substantially plane and parallel and having a fixing hole 6.4 mm + 0.2 mm in diameter drilled in the center, if necessary.

4.4. Procedure

The abrasion test shall be carried out on that surface of the test piece which represents the outside face of the glazing and also on the inner face if of plastics material.

4.4.1. Immediately before and after the abrasion, clean the test pieces in the following manner:

4.4.1.1. Wipe with a linen cloth under clear running water;

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4.4.1.3. Blow dry with oxygen or nitrogen;

4.4.1.4. Remove possible traces of water by dabbing softly with a damp linen cloth. If necessary, dry by pressing lightly between two linen cloths. Any treatment with ultrasonic equipment shall be avoided.

After cleaning, the test pieces shall be handled only by their edges and shall be stored to prevent damage to, or contamination of, their surfaces.

4.4.2. Condition the test pieces for a  minimum time of 48 hours at 20°C ± 5°C and 60% ± 20% relative humidity.

4.4.3. Immediately place the test piece against the entrance port of the integrating sphere. The angle between the normal (perpendicular) to the surface of the test piece and the axis of the light beam shall not exceed 8°.

Figure 7. Hazemeter

1. Lens   2. Integrating sphere   3. Photoelectric cell   4. Baffles

5. Light trap   6. Parallel beam   7. Lamp

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Table 5. Readings

Reading

With test piece

With light-trap

With reflectance standard

Quantity represented

T1

No

No

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Incident light

T2

Yes

No

Yes

Total light transmitted by test piece

T3

No

Yes

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Light scattered by instrument

T4

Yes

 

No

Light scattered by instrument and test piece

Repeat readings for T1, T2, T3, and T4 with other specified positions of the test piece to determine uniformity. Calculate the total transmittance Tt = T2/T1

                (3)

Calculate the total transmittance Td as follows:

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 (Td/Tt) ´ 100%                                   (4)

Measure the initial haze of the test piece at a minimum of four equally-spaced points in the unabraded area in accordance with the formula above. Average the results for each test piece. In lieu of the four measurements, an average value may be obtained by rotating the piece uniformly at 3 rev/sec or more.

For each type of safety glazing, carry out three tests with the same load. Use the haze as a measure of the subsurface abrasion, after the test piece has been subjected to the abrasion test.

Measure the light scattered by the abraded track at a minimum of four equally-spaced points along the track in accordance with the formula above. Average the results for each test piece. In lieu of the four measurements, an average value may be obtained by rotating the piece uniformly at 3 rev/sec or more.

4.5. The abrasion test will be carried out only at the discretion of the laboratory conducting the test with due regard to the information already at its disposal.

Except for glass-plastics materials, changes in the interlayer or materials thickness will not normally necessitate further testing.

4.6. Indices of difficulty of the secondary.

No secondary characteristics are involved.

5. Test of resistance to high temperature

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Heat to 100 °C three samples or three square test pieces of at least 300 mm x 300 mm which have been cut by the laboratory from three windscreens or three glass panes as the case may be, one edge of which corresponds to the upper edge of the glazing.

Maintain this temperature for a period of two hours, then allow the samples or test pieces to cool to room temperature.

If the safety glazing has both external surfaces of inorganic material, the test may be carried out by immersing the sample vertically in boiling water for the specified period of time, care being taken to avoid undue thermal shock.

If samples are cut from windscreens, one edge of each such sample shall be part of an edge of the windscreen.

5.2. Indices of difficulty of the secondary characteristics

                                                                        Colourless                                Tinted

Colouring of the interlayer                                         1                                          2

The other secondary characteristics are not involved.

5.3. 5.3. Interpretation of results

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5.3.2. A set of test pieces or samples submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from the point of view of the test for resistance to high temperature if either of the two following conditions is fulfilled, that is to say if:

5.3.2.1. all the tests have given a satisfactory result,

5.3.2.2. one test having given an unsatisfactory result, a further series of tests carried out on a new set of test pieces or samples has given satisfactory results.

6. Resistance-to-radiation test

6.1. Test method

6.1.1. Apparatus

6.1.1.1. Radiation source consisting of a medium-pressure mercury-vapour arc lamp with a tubular quartz bulb of ozone-free type; the bulb axis shall be vertical.

The nominal dimensions of the lamp shall be 360 mm in length by 9.5 mm in diameter. The arc length shall be 300 mm ± 4 mm. The lamp shall be operated at 750 W ± 50 W.

Any other source of radiation which produces the same effect as the lamp specified above may be used. To check that the effects of another source are the same, a comparison shall be made by measuring the amount of energy emitted within a wavelength range of 300 to 450 nanometers, all other wavelengths being removed by the use of suitable filters. The alternative source shall then be used with these filters.

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6.1.1.2. Power-supply transformer and capacitor capable of supplying to the lamp a starting peak voltage of 1,100 V minimum and an operating voltage of 500 V ± 50 V.

6.1.1.3. Device for mounting and rotating the test pieces at 1 to 5 rev/min about the centrally-located radiation source in order to ensure even exposure.

6.1.2. Test pieces

6.1.2.1. The size of the test pieces shall be 76 mm x 300 mm.

6.1.2.2. The test pieces shall be cut by the laboratory from the upper part of the glazing in such a way that:

In the case of glass panes, the upper edge of the test piece coincides with the upper edge of the glass pane.

In the case of windscreens, the upper edge of the test piece coincides with the upper limit of the zone in which regular transmittance shall be measured, determined in accordance with paragraph 9.1.2.2. of this annex.

6.1.3. Procedure

Check the regular light transmittance, determined according to paragraphs 9.1.1. to 9.1.2. of this annex, of three test pieces before exposure.

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That face of each test piece which would constitute a glazed exterior part of the vehicle shall face the lamp. For the type of lamp specified in paragraph 6.1.1., the exposure time shall be 100 hours.

After exposure, measure the regular light transmittance again in the exposed area of each test piece.

6.1.4 Each test piece or sample (total number 3 pieces) shall be subjected, in accordance with the procedure above, to radiation such that the radiation on each point of the test piece or sample produces on the interlayer used the same effect as that which would be produced by solar radiation of 1,400 W/m2 for 100 hours.

6.2. Indices of difficulty of the secondary characteristics

                                                               Colourless                                  Tinted

Colouring of glass                                             2                                            1

Colouring of interlayer                                        1                                            2

The other secondary characteristics are not involved.

6.3. Interpretation of results

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6.3.1.1. The total light transmittance when measured pursuant to paragraphs 9.1.1. and 9.1.2. of this annex does not fall below 95% of the original value before irradiation and in any event does not fall:

- Below 70% in the case of windscreens and other glazing located in a position requisite for driving visibility.

6.3.1.2. The test piece or sample may however show a slight coloration after irradiation when examined against a white background, but no other defect may be apparent.

6.3.2. A set of test pieces or samples submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from the point of view of the test for resistance to high temperature if one of the following conditions is fulfilled:

6.3.2.1. all the tests have given a satisfactory result.

6.3.2.2. one test having given an unsatisfactory result, a further series of tests carried out on a new set of test pieces or samples has given satisfactory results.

6.4. Resistance to simulated weathering

6.4.1. Test method

6.4.1.1. Apparatus

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The exposure apparatus shall utilize a long arc xenon lamp as the source of irradiation, but other methods giving the required level of ultraviolet radiant exposure shall be allowed. The long arc xenon lamp is advantageous in that it can, when correctly filtered and maintained, yield a spectrum most closely approximating that of natural sunlight.

To this end, the quartz xenon burner tube shall be fitted with suitable borosilicate glass optical filter(s). The xenon lamps employed shall be operated, from a suitable 50 or 60 Hz power supply suitable reactance transformers and electrical equipment.

The exposure apparatus shall include equipment necessary for measuring and/or controlling the following:

- Irradiance

- Black standard temperature

- Water spray

- Operating schedule or cycle

The exposure apparatus shall be made from inert materials which do not contaminate the water employed in the test.

Irradiance shall be measured at the surface of the test piece surface and shall be controlled according to the recommendations of the exposure apparatus manufacturer.

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6.4.1.2. Test pieces

The dimensions of the test pieces shall normally be those specified in the appropriate test method for the property or properties to be measured after exposure.

The number of control and test pieces for each test condition or exposure stage shall be determined, in addition to those required for visual evaluations by the number required by the test methods.

It is recommended that visual evaluations be conducted on the largest test pieces tested.

6.4.1.3. Procedure

Measure, according to paragraph 9.1. of this annex the luminous transmission of the test specimen(s) to be exposed. Measure, according to paragraph 4 of this annex, the resistance to abrasion of the surface(s) of the control piece(s). That face of each test pieces, which would represent the surface glazed to the exterior of the road vehicle, shall face the lamp. Other exposure conditions shall be as follows:

6.4.1.3.1. The irradiance shall not vary more than ±10% over the whole test specimen area.

6.4.1.3.2. At appropriate intervals, clean lamp filters by washing with detergent and water. Xenon arc filters shall be replaced according to the recommendations of the equipment manufacturer.

6.4.1.3.3. The temperature within the exposure apparatus during the dry portion of the cycle shall be controlled by circulation of sufficient air to maintain a constant black standard temperature.

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The black panel thermometer shall be mounted in the test specimen rack and readings shall be taken at the point where maximum heat is developed due to light exposure.

6.4.1.3.4. The relative humidity within the exposure apparatus shall be controlled at 50 ± 5% during the dry portions of the cycle.

6.4.1.3.5. The deionized water used in the spray cycle shall contain less than 1 ppm silicon dioxide solids and shall leave no permanent deposit or residue on the test specimens which would interfere with subsequent measurements.

6.4.1.3.6. The pH of the water shall be between 6.0 and 8.0, and the conductivity shall be less than 5 microsiemens.

6.4.1.3.7. The temperature of the water in the line where it enters the exposure apparatus shall be the ambient water temperature.

6.4.1.3.8. The water shall strike the test specimens in the form of a fine spray in sufficient volume to wet the test specimens uniformly, immediately upon impact.

Water spray will be directed only against the test specimen surface facing the light source. No recirculation of the spray water or immersion of the test specimens in the water shall be permitted.

6.4.1.3.9. The test specimens shall be rotated about the arc in order to provide uniform distribution of the light. All positions in the exposure apparatus shall be filled with test specimens or surrogates to ensure that a uniform temperature distribution is maintained. Test specimens shall be held in frames with backs exposed to the cabinet environment. However, reflections from cabinet walls shall not be permitted to strike the back surface of specimens. If necessary, samples may be backed to block such reflections so long as free circulation of air at the specimen surface is not impeded.

6.4.1.3.10. The exposure apparatus shall be operated to provide continuous light and intermittent water spray in 2 h cycles. Each 2 h cycle shall be divided into periods during which the test specimens are exposed to light without water spray for 102 minutes and to light with water spray for 18 minutes.

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After exposure, the test pieces may be cleaned, if necessary, by a practice recommended by their manufacturer to remove any residues present.

Evaluate the exposed test pieces visually with respect to the following properties:

- Bubbles

- Colour

- Haze

- Noticeable decomposition.

Measure the luminous transmission of the exposed test pieces.

6.4.1.5. Interpretation of results

Report visual evaluations of exposed test pieces, comparing the appearance of each with that of the unexposed control.

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- 75% in the case of a windscreen;

- 70% in the case of a glazing other than a windscreen which is located in a position requisite for driving visibility.

7. Resistance-to-humidity test

7.1. Procedure

Keep three samples or three square test pieces of at least 300 mm x 300 mm in a vertical position for two weeks in a closed container in which the temperature is maintained at 50°C ± 2°C and the relative humidity at 95 ± 4%.

The test pieces shall be prepared in such a way that:

- At least one edge of the test pieces coincides with an original edge of the glass pane,

- If several test pieces are tested at the same time, adequate spacing shall be provided between them.

Precautions shall be taken to prevent condensate from the walls or ceiling of the test chamber from falling on the test pieces.

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                                                                    Colourless                               Tinted

Colouring of the interlayer                                       1                                           2

The other secondary characteristics are not involved.

7.3. Interpretation of results

7.3.1. Safety glazing shall be deemed to be satisfactory from the point of view of resistance to humidity if no significant change is observed more than 10 mm from the uncut edges and more than 15 mm from the cut edges after ordinary and treated laminated glass glazing have been maintained for two hours in the ambient atmosphere, and plastics-faced and glass-plastics glazing have been maintained for 48 hours in the ambient atmosphere.

7.3.2. A set of test pieces or samples submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from the point of view of the test for resistance to humidity if one of the following conditions is fulfilled:

7.3.2.1. all the tests have given a satisfactory result.

7.3.2.2. one test having given an unsatisfactory result, a further series of tests carried out on a new set of test pieces or samples has given satisfactory results.

8. Test of resistance to temperature changes

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Two test pieces 300 mm x 300 mm shall be placed in an enclosure at a temperature of -40 °C ± 5 °C for a period of 6 hours; they shall then be placed in the open air at a temperature of 23°C ± 2°C for one hour or until temperature equilibrium has been reached by the test pieces. These shall then be placed in circulating air at a temperature of 72°C ± 2°C for 3 hours. After being placed again in the open air at 23°C ± 2°C and cooled to that temperature, the test pieces shall be examined.

8.2. Indices of difficulty of secondary characteristics

                                                                                                   Colourless                       Tinted

Colouring of the interlayer or of the plastics coating                                  1                                 2

The other secondary characteristics are not involved.

8.3. Interpretation of results

The test for resistance to temperature changes shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if the test pieces do not show any evidence of cracking, clouding, separation of layers or other apparent deterioration.

9. Optical qualities

9.1. Light transmission test

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9.1.1.1. Light source consisting of an incandescent lamp with its filament contained within a parallelepiped measuring 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm x 3 mm.

The voltage at the lamp filament shall be such that the colour temperature is 2,856 K ± 50 K. This voltage shall be stabilized within ±1/1,000. The instrument used to check the voltage shall be of appropriate accuracy.

9.1.1.2. Optical system consisting of a lens with a focal length f of at least 500 mm and corrected for chromatic aberrations. The full aperture of the lens shall not exceed f/20. The distance between the lens and the light source shall be adjusted in order to obtain a light beam which is substantially parallel.

A diaphragm shall be inserted to limit the diameter of the light beam to 7 mm ± 1 mm. This diaphragm shall be situated at a distance of 100 mm ± 50 mm from the lens on the side remote from the light source. The point of measurement shall be taken at the centre of the light beam.

9.1.1.3. Measuring equipment

The receiver shall have a relative spectral sensitivity in substantial agreement with the relative spectral luminous efficiency for the ICI (International Commission on Illumination) standard photometric observer for photopic vision. The sensitive surface of the receiver shall be covered with a diffusing medium and shall have at least twice the cross-section of the light beam emitted by the optical system. If an integrating sphere is used, the aperture of the sphere shall have a cross- sectional area at least twice that of the parallel portion of the beam. The linearity of the receiver and the associated indicating instrument shall be better than 2% of the effective part of the scale.

The receiver shall be centred on the axis of the light beam.

9.1.2. Procedure

The sensitivity of the measuring system shall be adjusted in such a way that the instrument indicating the response of the receiver indicates 100 divisions when the test piece is not inserted in the light path.

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Place the test piece at a distance from the receiver equal to approximately five times the diameter of the receiver. Insert the safety-glass pane between the diaphragm and the receiver and adjust its orientation in such a way that the angle of incidence of the light beam is equal to 0 ± 5°. The regular transmittance shall be measured on the test piece, and for every point measured the number of divisions, n, shown on the indicating instrument, shall be read. The regular transmittance x is equal to n/100.

9.1.2.1. In the case of windscreens, alternative test methods may be applied using either a test piece cut from the flattest part of a windscreen or a specifically- prepared flat square with material and thickness characteristics identical to those of the actual windscreen, the measurements being taken normal (perpendicular) to the glass pane.

9.1.2.2. For the windscreens of M1 vehicles (as defined in TCVN 8658:2010)  the test shall be carried out in test area B defined in Annex R, paragraph 2.3., excluding any opaque obscuration impinging on it. For other vehicles, the same test may be carried out in the zone I defined in paragraph 9.2.5 of this annex.

9.1.3. Indices of difficulty of the secondary characteristics

                                                                              Colourless                           Tinted

Colouring of glass                                                             1                                    2

Colouring of interlayer                                                        1                                    2

(in the case of laminated windscreens)

                                                                                               Not included                     Included

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The other secondary characteristics are not involved.

9.1.4. Interpretation of results

9.1.4.1. The regular light transmittance shall be measured according to paragraph 9.1.2. of this annex and the result shall be recorded.

9.1.4.2. In the case of windows situated at points which are not essential to the driver’s field of vision (glazed roof, for example) the regular transmittance factor of the light from the pane may be less than 70%. Windows having a regular light transmittance factor of less than 70% must be marked with an appropriate symbol.

9.2. Optical distortion test

9.2.1. Scope

The method specified is a projection method which permits evaluation of the optical distortion of a safety glazing.

9.2.1.1. Definitions

- “Optical deviation” means the angle between the true and the apparent direction of a point viewed through the windscreen, the magnitude of the angle being a function of the angle of incidence of the line of sight, the thickness and inclination of the windscreen, and the radius of curvature “r” at the point of incidence.

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- “Optical distortion at a point M”: The optical-distortion maximum for all directions M-M' from the point M.

Notes:

1) Da = a1 - a2: the optical distortion in the direction M-M'.

2) DX = MC: the distance between two straight lines parallel to the direction of vision and passing through the points M and M'.

9.2.1.2. Apparatus

This method entails the projection of an appropriate slide onto the display screen through the safety glazing being tested. The change caused in the shape of the projected image by the insertion of the safety glazing in the line of light provides a measure of the distortion. The apparatus shall comprise the following items, arranged as shown in Figure 11.

- Projector, of good quality, with a high-intensity point light source, having for example the following characteristics:

Focal length at least: 90 mm

Aperture approximately: 1/2.5

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250-W quartz halogen lamp (if a green filter is used).

Figure 8. Diagrammatic representation of optical distortion

Figure 9. Optical arrangement of the projector

1. Light source    2. Slide    3. Diaphragm    4. Condenser    5. Lens

- Slides consisting, for example, of an array of bright circular shapes on a dark background (see Figure 10). The slides shall be of sufficiently high quality and contrast to enable measurement to be carried out with an error of less than 5%. In the absence of the safety glazing to be examined, the dimensions of the circular shapes shall be such that when the circular shapes are projected they form an array of circles of diameter:

[(R1 + R2)/R1] DX                                                                                                                                                                                             (5)

where: DX = 4 mm (see Figure 9)

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- Support stand, preferably one permitting vertical and horizontal scanning, as well as rotation of the safety-glass pane.

Figure 10. Enlarged section of the slide

Figure 11. Arrangement of the apparatus for the optical distortion test

1. Projector 2. Diaphragm 3. Display screen 4. Viewing direction 5. Rake angle

R1 = 4 m, R2 = 4 m

- Checking template for measuring changes in dimensions where a rapid assessment is required. A suitable design is shown in Figure 12.

9.2.1.3. Procedure

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Mount the windscreen on the support stand (paragraph 9.2.1, Annex A) at the designed rake angle. Project the test image through the area being examined. Rotate the windscreen or move it either horizontally or vertically in order to examine the whole of the specified area.

- Assessment using a checking template

When a rapid assessment with a possible margin of error of up to 20% is sufficient, calculate the value of A (see Figure 10) from the limit value DaL, for the change in deviation and the value of R2, the distance from the safety glazing to the display screen.

A = 0.145 DaL ´ R2                                                                                                                                                                                     (6)

The relationship between the change in diameter of the projected image Dd and the change in angular deviation Da is given by:

Dd = 0.29 Da ´ R2                                                                                                                                                                                         (7)

where:

Dd, A is in milimeters

Da, DaL is in minutes of arc

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Figure 12. Design for a suitable checking template

1. Lower limit       2. Undistorted image     3. Upper limit

- Measurement using a photoelectric device

Where a precise measurement with a possible margin of error of less than 10% of the limit value is required, measure Dd on the projection axis, the value of the spot width being taken at the point where the luminance is 0.5 times the maximum spot-luminance value.

9.2.1.4. Expression of results

Evaluate the optical distortion of the windscreen by measuring Dd at any point of the surface and in all directions in order to find Dd max.

9.2.1.5. Alternative method: In addition, a strioscopic technique is permitted as an alternative to the projection techniques, provided that the accuracy of the measurements given in paragraphs 9.2.1.3 is maintained.

9.2.1.6. The distance Dx shall be 4 mm.

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9.2.1.8. The projection axis in the horizontal plane shall be maintained approximately normal to the trace of the windscreen in that plane.

9.2.2. The measurements shall be performed:

9.2.2.1. For vehicle category M1 in test area A, extended to the median plane of the vehicle, and in the corresponding part of the windscreen symmetrical to it about the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle, and also in the reduced test area B according to paragraph 2.4 of Annex R.

9.2.2.2. For vehicles of categories M and N other than M1, zone I is defined in paragraph 9.2.5.2. of this annex.

9.2.2.3. Vehicle type

The test shall be repeated if the windscreen is to be fitted to a vehicle of a type in which the forward field of vision differs from that of the vehicle type for which the windscreen has already been approved.

9.2.3. Indices of difficulty of secondary characteristics

9.2.3.1. Nature of the material

                                                   Polished glass                    Float glass                 Sheet glass

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9.2.3.2. Other secondary characteristics

No other secondary characteristics are involved.

9.2.4. Number of windscreens

Four test pieces shall be submitted for testing.

9.2.5. Definitions of zones

9.2.5.1. Zones A and B of windscreens for vehicle category M1 and N1 are defined in Annex R to this Regulation.

9.2.5.2. Zones of windscreens for vehicles of categories M and N other than M1 are defined on the basis of:

- The “eye-point” means the point located 625 mm above the R point of the driver's seat in the vertical plane parallel to the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle for which the windscreen is intended, passing through the axis of the steering wheel. The eye point is hereunder designated “O” :

- The straight line OQ which is the horizontal straight line passing through the eye point O and perpendicular to the median longitudinal plane of the vehicle.

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P1: A vertical plane passing through O and forming an angle of 15° to the left of the median longitudinal plane of the vehicle.

P2: A vertical plane symmetrical to P1 about the median longitudinal plane of the vehicle.

If this is not possible (in the absence of a symmetrical median longitudinal plane, for instance) P2 shall be the plane symmetrical to Pl about the longitudinal plane of the vehicle passing through point O.

P3: A plane passing through the straight line OQ and forming an angle of 10° above the horizontal plane;

P4: A plane passing through the straight line OQ and forming an angle of 8° below the horizontal plane.

9.2.6. Interpretation of results

A windscreen type shall be considered satisfactory with respect to optical distortion if, in the four windscreens submitted for testing, optical distortion does not exceed the values given in Table 6 below for each zone or test area.

Table 6. Values of optical distortion

Vehicle category

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Maximum values of optical distortion

M1

A. Extended according to para. 9.2.2.1

B.

2' of arc


6' of arc

M and N categories other than M1

I

2' of arc

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9.2.6.2. In the case of split windscreens, no measurements shall be made in a strip 35 mm from the edge of the windscreen, which is adjacent to the dividing pillar.

9.2.6.3. A maximum value of 6' of arc is permitted for all portions of zone I or zone A which are less than 100 mm from the edge of the windscreen.

9.2.6.4. Slight deviations from the requirements may be allowed in the reduced test area B provided they are localized and recorded in the report.

9.3. Secondary-image-separation test

9.3.1. Test methods

Two test methods are recognized: Target test and Collimation-telescope test.

These test methods may be used for approval, quality-control or product- evaluation purposes, as appropriate.

9.3.1.1. Target test

a) Apparatus

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The target may be designed in such a way that the test can be carried out on a simple 'go-no go' basis.

The target shall preferably be of one of the following types; that is to say, either:

- An illuminated “ring” target whose outer diameter, D, subtends an angle of n minutes of arc at a point situated at x metres (Figure 13a, Figure 14), or

- An illuminated “ring and spot” target whose dimensions are such that the distance D from a point on the edge of the spot to the nearest point on the inside of the circle subtends an angle of n minutes of arc at a point situated at x metres (Figure 13b, Figure 14).

where:

n is the limit value of secondary-image separation,

x is the distance from the safety glazing to the target (not less than 7 m);

D is given by the formula: D = x . tgn.

The illuminated target consists of a light box, approximately 300 mm x 300 mm x 150 mm, whose front is most conveniently constructed of glass masked with opaque black paper or coated with matt black paint.

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b) Procedure

Mount the windscreen at the specified rake angle on a suitable stand in such a way that the observation is carried out in the horizontal plane passing through the centre of the target.

The light box shall be viewed in a dark or semi-dark room, through each part of the area being examined, in order to detect the presence of any secondary image associated with the illuminated target.

Rotate the windscreen as necessary to ensure that the correct direction of view is maintained. A monocular may be used for viewing.

c) Expression of results

Determine whether,

When target (a) (see Figure 13a) is used, the primary and secondary images of the circle separate, i.e. whether the limit value of n is exceeded, or

When target (b) (see Figure 13b) is used, the secondary image of the spot shifts beyond the point of tangency with the inside edge of the circle, i.e. whether the limit value of n is exceeded.

9.3.1.2. Collimation-telescope test

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a) Apparatus

The apparatus comprises a collimator and a telescope and may be set up in accordance with Figure 15. However, any equivalent optical system may be used.

b) Procedure

The collimation telescope forms at infinity the image of a polar co-ordinate system with a bright point at its centre (see Figure 16).

In the focal plane of the observation telescope, a small opaque spot with a diameter slightly larger than of the projected bright point is placed on the optical axis, thus obscuring the bright point.

When a windscreen which exhibits a secondary image is placed between the telescope and the collimator, a second, less bright point appears at a certain distance from the centre of the polar co-ordinate system. The secondary-image separation can be read out as the distance between the points seen through the observation telescope (see Figure 16). The distance between the dark spot and the bright point at the centre of the polar coordinate system- represents the optical deviation.

Figure 13. Dimensions of targets

c) Expression of results

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Figure 14. Arrangement of apparatus

1. Observation location    2. Safety glazing    3. Target    4. Suitable light source

5. Observation distance   6. Rake angle.

Figure 15. Apparatus for collimation-telescope test

1. Lamp bulb   2. Condenser aperture > 8.6 mm   3. Ground-glass screen aperture > condenser aperture

4. Colour filter with central hole approximately 0.3 mm in diameter, diameter > 8.6 mm   5. Polar co-ordinate plate, diameter > 8.6 mm

6. Achromatic lens, f ³ 86 mm, aperture 10 mm 7. Achromatic lens, f ³ 86 mm, aperture 10 mm

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9.3.1.3. The direction of observation in the horizontal plane shall be maintained approximately normal to the trace of the windscreen in that plane.

9.3.2. The measurements shall be performed in the zones as defined in paragraph 9.2.2. above according to the vehicle categories.

9.3.2.1. Vehicle type

The test shall be repeated if the windscreen is to be fitted to a vehicle of a type in which the forward field of vision differs from that of the vehicle type for which the windscreen has already been approved.

9.3.3. Indices of difficulty of secondary characteristics

9.3.3.1. Nature of the material

 

Polished (plate) glass

Float glass

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Index of difficulty

1

1

2

9.3.3.2. Other secondary characteristics

No other secondary characteristics are involved.

9.3.4. Number of windscreens

Four test pieces shall be submitted for testing.

- Slides consisting, for example, of an array of bright circular shapes on a dark background (see Figure 10). The slides shall be of sufficiently high quality and contrast to enable measurement to be carried out with an error of less than 5%.

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Figure 16. Example of observation by the collimation-telescope test method

1. Secondary image          2. Primary image           3. Dark spot

9.3.5. Interpretation of results

A windscreen type shall be considered satisfactory with respect to secondary image separation if, in the four windscreens submitted for testing, separation of the primary and secondary – images does not exceed the values given below for each zone or test area.

9.3.5.1. For vehicles of categories M and N, no measurements shall be made in a peripheral area 25 mm wide.

9.3.5.2. In the case of split windscreens, no measurements shall be made in a strip 35 mm from the edge of the windscreen, which is adjacent to the dividing pillar.

9.3.5.3. A maximum value of 25' of arc is permitted for all portions of zone I or zone A in a peripheral area 100 mm inboard of the design glass outline.

9.3.5.4. Slight deviations from the requirements may be allowed in the reduced test area B provided they are localized and recorded in the report.

Table 7. Values of image separation

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Zone

Maximum values of the separation of the primary and secondary images

M1

A - extended according  to para. 9.2.2.1

B

15' of arc


25' of arc

M and N categories other than M1

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10. Burning behaviour (fire-resistance) test

10.1. Purpose and scope of application

This method enables the horizontal burning rate of materials used in the passenger compartment of motor vehicles (for example, private passenger cars, lorries (trucks), estate cars, motor coaches) after exposure to a small flame to be determined.

This method permits testing of materials and components of a vehicle's interior equipment individually or in combination up to a thickness of 13 mm. It is used to judge the uniformity of production lots of such materials with respect to their burning behaviour.

Because of the many differences between the real-world situation (application and orientation within a vehicle, conditions of use, ignition source, etc.) and the precise test conditions prescribed herein, this method cannot be considered as suitable for evaluation of all true in-vehicle burning characteristics.

10.2. Definitions

10.2.1. Burning rate: The quotient of the burnt distance measured according to this method and the time taken to burn that distance.

It is expressed in millimetres per minute (mm/ph).

10.2.2. Composite material: A material composed of several layers of similar or different materials intimately held together at their surfaces by cementing, bonding, cladding, welding, etc. When different materials are connected together intermittently (for example, by sewing, high-frequency-welding, riveting), then in order to permit the preparation of individual samples in accordance with paragraph 10.5. below such materials shall not be considered as composite materials.

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10.3. Principle

A sample is held horizontally in a U-shaped holder and is exposed to the action of a defined low-energy flame for 15 seconds in a combustion chamber, the flame acting on the free end of the sample. The test determines whether and when the flame is extinguished or the time which the flame requires to proceed over a measured distance.

10.4. Apparatus

10.4.1. Combustion chamber (Figure 17), preferably of stainless steel, having the dimensions given in Figure 18. The front of the chamber contains a flame-resistant observation window, which may cover the entire front and which can be constructed as an access panel.

The bottom of the chamber has vent holes, and the top has a vent slot all around. The combustion chamber is placed on four feet, 10 mm high. The chamber may have a hole at one end for the introduction of the sample holder containing the sample; in the opposite end, a hole is provided for the gas- supply line. Melted material is caught in a pan (see Figure 19) which is placed on the bottom of the chamber between vent holes without covering any vent hole area.

10.4.2. Sample holder, consisting of two U-shaped metal plates or frames of corrosion-proof material. Dimensions are given in Figure 20.

Figure 17. Example of combustion chamber with sample holder and drip pan

The lower plate is equipped with pins and the upper one with corresponding holes, in order to ensure a consistent holding of the sample. The pins also serve as measuring points at the beginning and end of the burning distance.

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10.4.3. Gas burner

The small ignition source is provided by a Bunsen burner having an inside diameter of 9.5 mm. It is so located in the test cabinet that the centre of its nozzle is 19 mm below the centre of the bottom edge of the open end of the sample (see Figure 18).

10.4.4. Test gas

The gas supplied to the burner shall have a calorific value of about 38 MJ/m3 (for example natural gas).

10.4.5. Metal comb, at least 110 mm in length, with seven or eight smooth rounded teeth per 25 mm.

10.4.6. Stop-watch, accurate to 0.5 sec.

10.4.7. Fume cupboard

The combustion chamber may be placed in a fume-cupboard assembly provided that the latter's internal volume is at least 20 times, but not more than 110 times, greater than the volume of the combustion chamber and provided that no single height, width, or length dimension of the fume cupboard is greater than 2.5 times either of the other two dimensions.

Dimensions in mm

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Figure 18. Example of combustion chamber

1. Vent hole   2. Gas burner   3. Sample

Before the test, the vertical velocity of the air through the fume cupboard shall be measured 100 mm forward of and to the rear of the ultimate site of the combustion chamber. It shall be between 0.10 and 0.30 m/s in order to avoid possible discomfort to the operator from combustion products. It is possible to use a fume cupboard with natural ventilation and an appropriate air velocity.

Dimensions in mm

Figure 19. Example of section of lower U-frame design for wire support facility

Dimensions in mm

Figure 20. Example of sample holder

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Figure 21. Example of section of lower U-frame design for wire support facility

1. Grooves 0,5 x 0,5 mm 2. Outer frame side

3. Grooves 2 x 2 mm 4. Length (direction of sample)

10.5. Samples

10.5.1. Shape and dimensions

The shape and dimensions of samples are given in Figure 22. The thickness of the sample corresponds to the thickness of the product to be tested. It shall not be more than 13 mm. When sample-taking so permits, the sample shall have a constant section over its entire length. When the shape and dimensions of a product do not permit taking a sample of the given size, the following minimum dimensions shall be observed:

Dimensions in mm

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+ For samples having a width of 3 to 60 mm, the length shall be 356 mm. In this case the material is tested over the product's width.

+ For samples having a width of 60 to 100 mm, the length shall be at least 138 mm. In this case the potential burning distance corresponds to the length of the sample. The measurement starting at the first measuring point.

+ Samples less than 60 mm wide and less than 356 mm long, and samples 60 to 100 mm wide and less than 138 mm long, cannot be tested according to the present method, nor can samples less than 3 mm wide.

10.5.2. Sampling

At least five samples shall be taken from the material under test. In materials having burning rates differing according to the direction of the material (this being established by preliminary tests) the five (or more) samples shall be taken and be placed in the test apparatus in such a way that the highest burning rate will be measured.

When the material is supplied in set widths, a length of at least 500 mm covering the entire width shall be cut. From the piece so cut, the samples shall be taken at not less than 100 mm from the edge of the material and at points equidistant from each other.

Samples shall be taken in the same way from finished products when the shape of the product so permits. If the thickness of the product is over 13 mm it shall be reduced to 13 mm by a mechanical process applied to the side which does not face the passenger compartment.

Composite materials (see paragraph 10.2.2, Annex A) shall be tested as if they were homogeneous.

In the case of materials comprising superimposed layers of different composition which are not composite materials, all the layers of material included within a depth of 13 mm from the surface facing towards the passenger compartment shall be tested individually.

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The samples shall be conditioned for at least 24 hours, but not more than 7 days, at a temperature of 23°C ± 2°C and a relative humidity of 50% ± 5%, and shall be maintained under these conditions until immediately prior to testing.

10.6. Procedure

10.6.1. Place samples with napped or tufted surfaces on a flat surface, and comb twice against the nap using the comb (paragraph 10.4.5, Annex A).

10.6.2. So place the sample in the sample holder (paragraph 10.4.2, Annex A) that the exposed side faces downwards, towards the flame.

10.6.3. Adjust the gas flame to a height of 38 mm using the mark in the chamber, the air intake of the burner being closed. The flame shall burn for at least one minute, for stabilization, before the first test is started.

10.6.4. Push the sample holder into the combustion chamber so that the end of the sample is exposed to the flame, and after 15 seconds cut off the gas flow.

10.6.5. Measurement of burning time starts at the moment when the foot of the flame passes the first measuring point. Observe the flame propagation on the side (upper or lower) which burns faster.

10.6.6. Measurement of burning time is completed when the flame has come to the last measuring point or when the flame is extinguished before reaching that point. If the flame does not reach the last measuring point, measure the burnt distance up to the point where the flame was extinguished. Burnt distance is the part of the sample destroyed, on the surface or inside, by burning.

10.6.7. If the sample does not ignite or does not continue burning after the burner has been extinguished, or the flame goes out before reaching the first measuring point, so that no burning time is measured, note in the test report that the burning rate is 0 mm/min.

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10.7. Calculation: The burning rate B, in millimetres per minute, is given by the:

                       (8)

where:

s is the burnt distance, in millimetres;

t is the time, in seconds, taken to burn the distance s.

10.8. Indices of difficulty of the secondary characteristics

No secondary characteristics are involved.

10.9. Interpretation of results

10.9.1. Safety glazing faced with plastics material (paragraph 1.2.3 of this Regulation) and glass-plastics (paragraph 1.2.4 of this Regulation) shall be considered satisfactory from the point of view of the fire-resistance test if the burn rate does not exceed 250 mm/min.

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11. Test of resistance to chemicals

11.1. Chemicals used for the test

11.1.1. Non-abrasive soap solution: 1% by weight of potassium oleate in deionised water.

11.1.2. Window-cleaning-solution: an aqueous solution of isopropanol and dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether in concentration between 5 and 10% by weight each and ammonium hydroxide in concentration between 1 and 5% by weight.

11.1.3. Undiluted denatured alcohol: 1 part by volume methyl alcohol in 10 parts by volume ethyl alcohol.

11.1.4. Petrol or equivalent reference petrol: a mixture of 50% by volume toluene, 30% by volume 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, 15% by volume 2,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentene and 5% by volume ethyl alcohol. The composition of the petrol used shall be recorded in the test report.

11.1.5. Reference kerosene: a mixture of 50% by volume n-octane and 50% by volume n-decane.

11.2. Test method

11.2.1. Test procedure under load:

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Figure 23. Method of setting up the sample

11.2.1.2. The load mass shall be 28.7 . t2 g where t is the thickness in mm of the test specimen. The resulting stress on the outer fibre of the sample is approximately 6.9 MPa.

Example: For a 3 mm thick sample placed horizontally between a downward fixed edge and an upward fulcrum edge separated by 51 mm the applied downward load at 102 mm from the fulcrum is to be 258 g.

11.2.1.3. While the sample is stressed, one of the prescribed chemicals shall be applied to the top surface of the sample above the fulcrum point. The chemical shall be applied with a soft, 13 mm wide brush, wetted before each stroke. Ten individual strokes at 1 s intervals across the width of the sample, avoiding the end and edges, shall be required (see Figure 24).

11.3. Indices of difficulty of the secondary characteristics

 

Colourless

Tinted

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1

2

The other secondary characteristics are not concerned.

Figure 24. Method of applying chemicals to the sample

11.4. Interpretation of results

11.4.1. The test for resistance to chemical agents shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if the sample does not exhibit any softening, tackiness, crazing or apparent loss of transparency.

11.4.2. A set of samples shall be considered satisfactory with regard to the test for resistance to chemical agents if one of the following conditions is met:

11.4.2.1. All the tests have given a satisfactory result;

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12. Flexibility test and fold test

12.1. Scope

With this test has to be found out whether a plastic is to be classed into the categories of rigid or flexible plastics.

12.2. Test method

From the material of the nominal thickness a rectangular flat sample 300 mm long and 25 mm wide is cut out and horizontally clamped into a clamping device in such a way that 275 mm of the length of the sample freely extend over the holding device. This free end shall be supported horizontally by an appropriate device until the test begins. Sixty seconds after removal of this support the vertical deviation of the free end is indicated in mm. If this deviation exceeds 50 mm a 180° fold test is performed subsequently. The sample is folded concisely, after that it is folded round 0.5 mm thick piece of sheet metal in such a way that it tightly contacts it on both sides.

Figure 25. Arrangement of flexibility test

12.3. Conditioning

- Temperature: 200C ± 20C

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12.4. Requirements

The vertical deviation shall be more than 50 mm for flexible plastics, and 10 seconds after a 180° - folding the material shall not show any fracture-like damages at the point of buckling (see Figure 25).

13. Cross-cut test

13.1. Scope

This test gives a simple method to determine the adhesion of coatings to the subsurface. The brittleness and other strength characteristics can be evaluated.

13.2. Apparatus

Cutting tool with 6 blades set at 1 mm apart. A magnifying glass with an enlargement of 2 x to examine the crosscut specimen (see Figure 26).

13.3. Test method

Cut through the coating on to the subsurface a pattern with 6 cuts and perpendicular to this, another one so that a grid with 25 squares arises (grid- cut).

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The cutting is conducted in such a way that the two leading heads at the edge of the apparatus touch the surface uniformly. After the test the cuts are examined with a magnifying glass to check that they reach the subsurface. After the cuts have been produced they are brushed 5 times with slight pressure in both diagonal directions with a hand brush with polyamide bristles.

13.4. Interpretation of results

The grid cuts are examined with a magnifying glass. If the cut edges are perfectly smooth and if no part of the coating is detached then it will be given a cross cut value of Gt0. If there are small fragments detached at the intersection of the cuts and if the exposed area amounts to about 5% of the grid area the cut value is Gt1.

Figure 26. Tool with six blades

Larger areas of detachment will be graded in the range Gt2 to Gt5.

Table 8. Cut value grade

Cut value grade

Exposed area of the grid area

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between 5 and 15%

Gt3

between 15 and 35%

Gt4

between 35 and 65%

Gt5

higher than 65%

Annex B

Toughened-glass windscreens

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Toughened-glass windscreens shall be deemed to belong to different types if they differ in at least one of the following principal or secondary characteristics.

The principal characteristics are as follows:

1.1.1. The trade names or marks.

1.1.2. The shape and dimensions

Toughened-glass windscreens shall be considered as belonging to one or other of two groups for the purposes of fragmentation and mechanical- properties test:

1.1.2.1. Flat windscreens, or

1.1.2.2. Curved windscreens.

1.1.3. The thickness category in which the nominal thickness 'e' lies (a manufacturing tolerance of ± 0.2 mm being allowed).

Category I: e £ 4.5 mm

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Category III: 5.5 mm < e £ 6.5 mm

Category IV: e > 6.5 mm

1.2. Secondary characteristics

1.2.1. Nature of the material (polished (plate) glass, float glass, sheet glass).

1.2.2. Colouring (colourless or tinted).

1.2.3. The incorporation or otherwise of conductors.

1.2.4. The incorporation or otherwise of opaque obscuration.

2. Fragmentation test

2.1. Indices of difficulty of the secondary characteristics

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2.1.2. Float glass and sheet glass are considered to have the same index of difficulty.

2.1.3. The fragmentation tests shall be repeated on transition from polished (plate) glass to float glass or sheet glass, and vice versa.

2.1.4. The tests must be repeated if obscuration bands other than painted bands are used.

2.2. Number of test pieces

Six test pieces from the smallest-developed-area series and six samples from the largest-developed-area series, selected as prescribed in Annex M, shall be tested.

2.3. Different zones of glass

A toughened-glass windscreen shall comprise two main zones, FI and FII. It may also comprise an intermediate zone, FIII. These zones are as defined below.

2.3.1. Zone FI

Peripheral zone of fine fragmentation, at least 7 cm wide, all round the edge of the windscreen and including an outer strip 2 cm wide not subjected to assessment.

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Visibility zone of varying fragmentation, always including a rectangular part at least 20 cm high and 50 m long.

2.3.2.1. For vehicles of category M1, the centre of the rectangle shall be inside a circle having a radius of 10 cm centred on the projection of the middle of segment V1-V2.

2.3.2.1. For vehicles of categories M and N other than M1, the centre of the rectangle shall be inside a circle having a radius of 10 cm centred on the projection of point O.

2.3.2.3. The height of the above rectangle may be reduced to 15 cm for windscreens which are less than 44 cm high.

2.3.3. Zone F3

Intermediate zone, not more than 5 cm wide, between zones F1 and F2.

2.4. Test method

The method used shall be that described in Annex A, paragraph 1.

2.5. Points of impact (see Annex Q, Figure 2)

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Point 1: in the central part of zone F2 in an area of high or low stress.

Point 2: in zone F3, as near as possible to the vertical plane of symmetry of zone F2.

Point 3 and 3': 3 cm from the edges of one median of the test piece; when there is a tong mark, one of the breakage points shall be near the edge bearing the tong mark and the other near the opposite edge.

Point 4: at the place where the radius of curvature is smallest on the longest median.

Point 5: 3 cm from the edge of the test piece at the place where the radius of curvature of the edge is smallest, either to the left or to the right.

2.5.2. A fragmentation test shall be performed at each of the points 1, 2, 3, 3', 4 and 5.

2.6. Interpretation of results

2.6.1. A test shall be deemed to have given a satisfactory result if fragmentation satisfies all the conditions given in paragraphs 2.6.1.1., 2.6.1.2. and 2.6.1.3. below.

2.6.1.1. Zone F1

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b) For the purposes of the above rule, a fragment extending across a side of a square shall count as half a fragment.

c) Fragmentation shall not be checked in a strip 2 cm wide round the edge of the samples, this strip representing the frame of the glass, nor within a radius of 7.5 cm from the point of impact.

d) A maximum of 3 fragments of an area exceeding 3 cm2 shall be allowed. No two of these fragments shall be contained within the same 10 cm diameter circle.

dd) Elongated fragments may be permitted provided that their ends are not knife- edged and that their length does not exceed 7.5 cm, except in the case provided for in paragraph 2.6.2.2. below. If these elongated fragments extend to the edge of the glass, they shall not form an angle of more than 45° with it.

2.6.1.2. Zone F2

a) The residual visibility after shattering shall be checked in the rectangular area defined in paragraph 2.3.2. above. In that rectangle the aggregate surface area of the fragments of more than 2 cm2 shall represent not less than 15% of the area of the rectangle; however, in the case of windscreens less than 44 cm high, or whose angle of installation is less than 15° from the vertical, the visibility percentage shall at least be equal to 10% of the surface of the corresponding rectangle.

b) No fragment shall have an area of more than 16 cm2 except in the case provided for in paragraph 2.6.2.2. below.

c) Within a radius of 10 cm from the point of impact, but only in that part of the circle which is included in Zone F2, three fragments having an area of more than 16 cm2 but less than 25 cm2 shall be allowed.

d) Fragments shall be substantially regular in shape and free from points of the type described in paragraph d) below. However, not more than 10 irregular fragments shall be allowed in any 50 x 20 cm rectangle and not more than 25 over the whole surface of the windscreen.

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+ A fragment shall be considered as an irregular fragment if it cannot be inscribed in a circle of 40 mm in diameter, if it has at least one point more than 15 mm long when measured from the top of the point to the section whose width is equal to the glazing thickness, and if it has one or more points having a top angle smaller than 40°.

dd) Fragments of elongated shape shall be allowed in Zone F2 as a whole, provided they do not exceed 10 cm in length, except in the case provided for in paragraph 2.6.2.2. below.

2.6.1.3. Zone F3

Fragmentation in this zone shall have characteristics intermediate between those of the fragmentation respectively allowed for the two neighbouring zones (F1 and F2).

2.6.2. A windscreen submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from the point of view of fragmentation if at least one of the following conditions is fulfilled:

2.6.2.1. When all the tests carried out using the points of impact defined in paragraph 2.5.1. above have given a satisfactory result.

2.6.2.2. When one test among all those carried out using the points of impact prescribed in paragraph 2.5.1. has given an unsatisfactory result, taking account of deviations which do not exceed the following limits:

Zone F1: not more than five fragments between 7.5 and 15 cm long.

Zone F2: not more than three fragments of between 16 and 20 cm2 in area located outside the circle having a radius of 10 cm centred on the point of impact.

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2.6.2.3. When two tests among all the tests carried out using the points of impact prescribed in paragraph 2.5.1. have given an unsatisfactory result for deviations not exceeding the limits specified in paragraph 2.6.2.2., and a further series of tests carried out on a new set of samples conforms to the requirements of paragraph 2.6.1., or not more than two samples of the new set present deviations within the above specified limits of paragraph 2.6.2.2.

2.6.3. If the above-mentioned deviations are found, they shall be noted in the test report and permanent recording(s) of the fragmentation pattern of the relevant parts of the windscreen shall be attached to the report.

3. Headform test

3.1. Indices of difficulty of the secondary characteristics

No secondary characteristic is involved.

3.2. Number of test pieces

3.2.1. For each group of toughened-glass windscreens, four test pieces having approximately the smallest developed area and four test pieces having approximately the largest developed area, all eight samples being of the same types as those selected for the fragmentation tests (see paragraph 2.2. above), shall be subjected to testing.

3.2.2. Alternatively, at the discretion of the laboratory conducting the tests, for each category of windscreen thickness, six test pieces of the dimension (1,100 mm x 500 mm)+5-2 mm shall be subjected to testing.

3.3. Test method

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3.3.2. The height of drop shall be 1.5 m+0-5 mm.

3.4. Interpretation of results

3.4.1. The test shall be deemed to have given a satisfactory result if the windscreen or the test piece is fractured.

3.4.2. A set of test pieces submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from the point of view of the headform test if either of the two following conditions is fulfilled, that is to say if:

3.4.2.1. All the tests have given a satisfactory result.

3.4.2.2. One test having given an unsatisfactory result, a further series of tests carried out on a new set of test pieces has given satisfactory results.

4. Optical qualities

The requirements concerning optical qualities set out in Annex A, paragraph 9, shall apply to every type of windscreen.

Notes: This type of uniformly-toughened glass pane can also be used for windscreens for slow-moving vehicles which, by construction, cannot exceed 40 km/h..

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Uniformly-toughened glass panes shall be deemed to belong to different types if they differ in at least one of the following principal or secondary characteristics.

The principal characteristics are as follows:

1.1.1. The trade names or marks.

1.1.2. The nature of the toughening process (thermal or chemical).

1.1.3. The shape category; two categories are distinguished:

1.1.3.1. Flat glass panes.

1.1.3.2. Flat and curved glass panes.

1.1.4. The thickness category in which the nominal thickness “e” lies (a manufacturing tolerance of ±0.2 mm being allowed):

Category 1                              e £ 3,5 mm

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Category 3                      4,5 mm < e £ 6,5 mm

Category 4                              e > 6,5 mm

1.2. The secondary characteristics are as follows:

1.2.1. Nature of the material (polished (plate) glass, float glass, sheet glass).

1.2.2. Colouring (colourless or tinted).

1.2.3. The incorporation or otherwise of conductors.

1.2.4. The incorporation or otherwise of opaque obscuration.

2. Fragmentation test

2.1. Indices of difficulty of the secondary characteristics

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Material

Index of difficulty

Plate glass

2

Float glass

1

Sheet glass

1

2.2. Selection of test pieces

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2.2.1.1. In the case of flat glass panes, two sets of test pieces shall be provided, corresponding to:

a) The largest developed area.

b) The smallest angle between two adjacent sides.

2.2.1.2. In the case of flat and curved glass panes, one set of samples shall be provided, corresponding to:

a) The largest developed area.

b) The smallest angle between two adjacent sides.

c) The largest height of segment.

2.2.2. Tests carried out on test pieces corresponding to the largest area “S” shall be considered to be applicable to any other area smaller than S + 5%.

2.2.3. If the samples submitted present an angle g smaller than 30°, the tests shall be considered as applicable to all glass panes produced having an angle greater than g0 - 5°.

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2.2.4. If the height of segment h of the samples submitted is greater than 100 mm, the tests shall be considered as applicable to all glass panes produced having a height of segment smaller than h + 30 mm.

If the height of segment of the samples submitted is less than or equal to 100 mm, the tests shall be considered as applicable to all glass panes having a height of segment less than or equal to 100 mm.

2.3. Number of test pieces per set

The number of test pieces in each group shall be as follows, according to the shape category defined in paragraph 1.1.3. above.

Table 9. Number of test pieces by kind of glass pane

Kind of glass pane

Number of test pieces

Plate

4

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4

Curved (minimum radius of curvature < 200 mm)

8

2.4. Test method

2.4.1. The method used shall be that described in Annex A, paragraph 1.

2.5. Points of impact (see Annex Q, Figure 3)

2.5.1. For flat glass panes and curved glass panes the points of impact represented respectively in Annex M, Figures 3(a) and 3(b) on the one hand, and in Annex Q, Figure 3(c) on the other hand, shall be as follows:

Point 1: In the geometric centre of the glass.

Point 2: For curved glass panes having a minimum radius of curvature “r” of less than 200 mm. The point shall be selected on the largest median in that part of the pane where the radius of curvature is smallest.

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2.6. Interpretation of results

2.6.1. A test shall be deemed to have given a satisfactory result if fragmentation satisfies the following conditions:

2.6.1.1. The number of fragments in any 5 cm x 5 cm square is not less than 40.

2.6.1.2. For the purposes of the above rule, a fragment extending across a side of a square shall count as half a fragment.

2.6.1.3. Fragmentation shall not be checked in a strip 2 cm wide round the edge of the samples, this strip representing the frame of the glass; nor within a radius of 7.5 cm from the point of impact.

2.6.1.4. Fragments of an area exceeding 3 cm2 shall not be allowed except in the parts defined in paragraph 2.6.1.3. above.

2.6.1.5. A few fragments of elongated shape shall be allowed, provided that:

their ends are not knife-edged.

if they extend to the edge of the glass pane they do not form an angle of more than 45° with it, and if, except in the case provided for in paragraph 2.6.2.2. below, their length does not exceed 7.5 cm.

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2.6.2.1. When all tests carried out using the points of impact prescribed in paragraph 2.5.1. above have given a satisfactory result.

2.6.2.2. When one test among all those carried out using the points of impact prescribed in paragraph 2.5.1 has given an unsatisfactory result, taking account of deviations which do not exceed the following limits:

not more than 5 fragments between 6 and 7.5 cm long.

not more than 4 fragments between 7,5 and 10 cm long.

and is repeated on a new sample which either conforms to the requirements of paragraph 2.6.1. or presents deviations within the above specified limits.

2.6.2.3. When two tests among all the tests carried out using the points of impact prescribed in paragraph 2.5.1. have given an unsatisfactory result, taking account of deviations not exceeding the limits specified in paragraph 2.6.2.2., and a further series of tests carried out on a new set of samples conform to the prescriptions of paragraph 2.6.1. or not more than two samples of the new set present deviations within the above specified limits of paragraph 2.6.2.2.

2.6.3. If the above-mentioned deviations are found, they shall be noted in the test report and permanent recording(s) of the fragmentation pattern of the relevant parts of the glass pane shall be attached to the report.

3. Mechanical strength test

3.1. 227 g ball test

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Material

Polished glass

Float glass

Sheet glass

Index of difficulty

2

1

1

 

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Colourless

Tinted

 

Index of difficulty

1

2

 

The other secondary characteristic (namely, incorporation or otherwise of conductors) is not involved.

3.1.2. Number of test pieces

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3.1.3. Test method

3.1.3.1. The test method used shall be that described in Annex A, paragraph 2.1.

3.1.3.2. The height of drop (from the underface of the ball to the upper surface of the test piece) shall be 2.0 m + 5 mm.

3.1.4. Interpretation of results

3.1.4.1. The test shall be deemed to have given a satisfactory result if at least five of the test pieces do not break.

3.1.4.2. A set of test pieces submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from the point of view of mechanical strength if at least one of the following conditions is fulfilled:

a) When not more than one test has given an unsatisfactory result.

b) When two tests having given unsatisfactory results, a further series of tests carried out on a new set of six test pieces give satisfactory results.

4. Optical qualities

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4.2. The provisions of paragraph 9 of Annex A shall apply to uniformly-toughened glass panes used as windscreens of slow-moving vehicles which, by construction, cannot exceed 40 km/h.

1. Definition of type

Ordinary laminated-glass windscreens shall be deemed to belong to different types if they differ in at least one of the following principal or secondary characteristics:

1.1. The principal characteristics are as follows

1.1.1. The trade names or marks

1.1.2. The shape and dimensions

Ordinary laminated-glass windscreens shall be deemed to belong to one group for the purposes of tests of mechanical properties and of resistance to the environment.

1.1.3. The number of layers of glass.

1.1.4. The nominal thickness 'e' of the windscreen, a manufacturing tolerance of 0.2n mm (“n” being the number of layers of glass in the windscreen).

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1.2. The secondary characteristics are as follows:

1.2.1. The nature of the material (polished (plate) glass, float glass, sheet glass).

1.2.2. The colouring (total or partial) of the interlayer or interlayers (colourless or tinted).

1.2.3. The colouring of the glass (colourless or tinted).

1.2.4. The incorporation or otherwise of conductors.

1.2.5. The incorporation or otherwise of opaque obscuration.

2. General

2.1. In the case of ordinary laminated-glass windscreens, tests other than headform tests (paragraph 3.2. below) and tests of optical qualities shall be conducted on flat test pieces which are either cut from actual windscreens or are specially made for the purpose. In either case the test pieces shall be in all respects rigorously representative of the serially-produced windscreens for which approval is sought.

2.2. Before each test the test pieces shall be stored for not less than four hours at a temperature of 23°C ± 2°C. The tests shall take place as soon as possible after the test pieces have been taken out of the receptacle in which they were stored.

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3.1. Indices of difficulty of the secondary characteristics

No secondary characteristic is involved.

3.2. Headform test on a complete windscreen

3.2.1. Number of test pieces

Four test pieces from the smallest-developed-area series and four samples from the largest-developed-area series selected in accordance with the provisions of Annex M, shall be tested.

3.2.2. Test method

3.2.2.1. The method used shall be that described in Annex A, paragraph 3.1.b

3.2.2.2. The drop height shall be 1.5 m+5-0 mm.

3.2.3. Interpretation of results

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a) The test piece breaks displaying numerous circular cracks centred approximately on the point of impact, the cracks nearest to the point of impact being not more than 80 mm from it.

b) The layers of glass shall remain adhering to the plastics-material interlayer. One or more partial separation from the interlayer with a distance of less than 4 mm in breadth, on either side of the crack, is permitted outside a circle of 60 mm in diameter centred on the point of impact.

c) On the impact side

+ The interlayer shall not be laid bare over an area of more than 20 cm2.

+ A tear in the interlayer up to a length of 35 mm is allowed.

3.2.3.2. A set of test pieces submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from the point of view of the headform test if all the tests give a satisfactory result.

4. Mechanical strength test

4.1. Indices of difficulty of the secondary characteristics

No secondary characteristic is involved.

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4.2.1. Number of test pieces

Twelve square test pieces of 300+10-0 mm side shall be subjected to testing.

4.2.2. Test method

4.2.2.1. The method used shall be that described in Annex A, paragraph 2.2.

4.2.2.2. The height of drop (from the underface of the ball to the upper face of the test piece) shall be 4 m+25-0 mm.

4.2.3. Interpretation of results

4.2.3.1. The test shall be deemed to have given a satisfactory result if the ball does not pass through the glazing within five seconds after the moment of impact.

4.2.3.2. A set of test pieces submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from the point of view of the 2,260 g ball test if one of the following two conditions is met:

a) all the tests give satisfactory results, or

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4.3. 227 g ball test

4.3.1. Indices of difficulty of the secondary characteristics

No secondary characteristic is involved.

4.3.2. Number of test pieces

20 square test pieces of 300+10-0 mm side are subjected to testing.

4.3.3. Test method

4.3.3.1. The method used is that described in paragraph 2.1 of Annex A

10 test pieces shall be tested at a temperature of +40°C ± 2°C.

4.3.3.2. The height of drop: 9m at +400C and the mass of the detached fragments are given in the table below:

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Thickness of test piece

+400C ± 20C

Height of fall

Maximum permitted mass of the fragments

(mm)

(m)

(g)

e £ 4.5

9

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4.5 < e £ 5.5

9

15

5.5 < e £ 6.5

9

20

e > 6.5

9

25

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4.3.4.1. The test shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if the following conditions are met:

The ball does not pass through the test piece.

The test piece does not break into several pieces.

If the interlayer is not torn, the weight of fragments detached from the side of the glass opposite to the point of impact shall not exceed the appropriate values specified in paragraph 4.3.3.2. above.

4.2.3.2. A set of test pieces submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from the point of view of the 227 g ball test if one of the following conditions is met:

a) not less than eight tests at each test temperature give a satisfactory result, or

b) more than two tests at each test temperature having given an unsatisfactory result, a further series of tests must be carried out on a new set of test pieces and give satisfactory results.

5. Test of resistance to the environment

5.1. Test of resistance to abrasion

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The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 4, shall apply, the test being continued for 1,000 cycles.

5.1.2. Interpretation of results

The safety-glass pane shall be considered satisfactory with respect to abrasion resistance if the light scatter as a result of abrasion of the test piece does not exceed 2%.

5.2. Test of resistance to high temperature

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 5, shall apply.

5.3. Resistance-to-radiation test

5.3.1. General requirement

This test shall be performed only if the laboratory deems it useful in the light of the information in its possession concerning the interlayer.

5.3.2. The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 6.3, shall apply.

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The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 7, shall apply.

6. Optical qualities

The requirements concerning optical qualities set out in Annex A, paragraph 9, shall apply to every type of windscreen. This shall not apply to flat windscreens which fall within an already approved group if the rake angle is less than 40° to the vertical.

1. Definition of type

Laminated-glass panes shall be deemed to belong to different types if they differ in at least one of the following principal or secondary characteristics.

1.1. The principal characteristics are as follows

1.1.1. The trade names or marks.

1.1.2. The thickness category of the pane in which the nominal thickness 'e' lies, a manufacturing tolerance of ± 0.2 mm (“n” being the number of layers of glass in the pane) being allowed:

Category 1              e £ 5.5 mm

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Category 3              e > 6.5 mm

1.1.3. The nominal thickness of the interlayer or interlayers.

1.1.4. The nature and type of the interlayer or interlayers, e.g. PVB or other plastics-material interlayer or interlayers.

1.1.5. Any special treatment which one or more layers of glass may have undergone.

1.2. The secondary characteristics are as follows:

1.2.1. The nature of the material (polished (plate) glass, float glass, sheet glass).

1.2.2. The colouring (total or partial) of the interlayer or interlayers (colourless or tinted).

1.2.3. The colouring of the glass (colourless or tinted).

1.2.4. The incorporation or otherwise of opaque obscuration.

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2.1. In the case of laminated-glass panes, the tests shall be conducted on flat test pieces which are either cut from actual glass glazing or are specially made. In either case the test pieces shall be in all respects rigorously representative of the glass glazing for the production of which approval is sought.

Before each test the test pieces of laminated glass shall be stored for not less than four hours at a temperature of 23°C ± 2°C. The tests shall be performed on the test pieces as soon as the test pieces have been taken out of the receptacle in which they were stored.

2.3. The provisions of this annex shall be considered to be met if the glazing submitted for approval is of the same composition as a windscreen already approved under the provisions of Annex D or Annex G or Annex H.

3. Mechanical strength test - 227 g ball test

3.1. Indices of difficulty of the secondary characteristics

No secondary characteristic is involved.

3.2. Number of test pieces

Eight flat samples measuring 300 mm x 300 mm shall be tested.

3.3. Test method

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3.3.2. The height of drop of the test piece or sample shall be 9 m+25-0 mm.

3.4. Interpretation of results

3.4.1. The test shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if the following conditions are met:

The ball does not pass through the test piece.

The test piece does not break into several fragments.

the total weight of the few fragments which may be produced on the side opposite to the point of impact does not exceed 15 g.

3.4.2. A set of test pieces subjected to component type-approval testing is considered satisfactory from the point of view of mechanical strength if one of the following conditions is met:

3.4.2.1. all the tests have given a satisfactory result.

3.4.2.2. one test having given an unsatisfactory result, a further series of tests carried out on a new set of test pieces gives satisfactory results.

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4.1. Test of resistance to abrasion

4.1.1. Indices of difficulty and test method

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 4, shall apply, the test being continued for 1,000 cycles.

4.1.2. Interpretation of results

The safety-glass pane shall be considered satisfactory from the point of view of abrasion resistance if the light scatter as a result of abrasion of the test piece does not exceed 2 %.

4.2. Test of resistance to high temperature

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 5, shall apply.

4.3. Resistance-to-radiation test

4.3.1. General requirement

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4.3.2. The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 6.3., shall apply.

4.4. Resistance-to-humidity test

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 7, shall apply.

5. Optical qualities

The provisions concerning the regular light transmittance set out in Annex A, paragraph 9.1., shall apply to glass panes, or parts of glass panes located at places which are essential to the driver's vision.

 

1. Definition of type

Treated laminated-glass windscreens shall be deemed to belong to different types if they differ in at least one of the following principal or secondary characteristics.

1.1.The principal characteristics are as follows:

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1.1.2. The shape and dimensions

Treated laminated glass windscreens shall be deemed to belong to one group for the purposes of tests of fragmentation, of mechanical properties and of resistance to the environment.

1.1.3. The number of layers of glass.

1.1.4. The nominal thickness “e” of the windscreen, a manufacturing tolerance of ± 0,2 n mm (“n” being the number of layers of glass in the windscreen) above and below the nominal value being allowed.

1.1.5. Any special treatment which one or more layers of glass may have undergone.

1.1.6. The nominal thickness of the interlayer or interlayers.

1.1.7. The nature and type of the interlayer or interlayers (e.g. PVB or other plastics-material interlayer or interlayers).

1.2. The secondary characteristics are as follows:

1.2.1. The nature of the material (polished (plate) glass, float glass, sheet glass).

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1.2.3. The colouring of the glass (colourless or tinted).

1.2.4. The incorporation or otherwise of conductors.

1.2.5. The incorporation or otherwise of opaque obscuration.

2. General

2.1. In the case of treated laminated-glass windscreens, tests other than the headform test on a complete windscreen and tests of optical qualities shall be conducted on samples and/or flat test pieces which are specially made for the purpose. However, the test pieces shall be in all respects rigorously representative of the serially-produced windscreens for which approval is sought.

2.2. Before each test, the test pieces or samples shall be stored for not less than four hours at a temperature of 23°C ± 2°C. The tests shall take place as soon as possible after the test pieces or samples have been taken out of the receptacle in which they were stored.

3. Tests prescribed

Treated laminated glass windscreens shall be subjected to:

3.1. The tests prescribed in Annex D for ordinary laminated-glass windscreens.

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4. Fragmentation test

4.1. Indices of difficulty of the secondary characteristics

Material

Index of difficulty

Plate glass

2

Float glass

1

Sheet glass

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4.2. Number of test pieces or samples

One test piece measuring (1,100 mm x 500 mm)+5-2 or one sample for each point of impact shall be subjected to testing.

4.3. Test method

4.2.2.1. The method used shall be that described in Annex A, paragraph 1.

4.4. Impact point or points

The glass pane shall be struck on each of the outer treated sheets in the centre of the test piece or sample.

4.5. Interpretation of results

4.5.1. For each point of impact the fragmentation test shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if the total surface area of fragments having a surface area of more than 2 cm2 comprised in a rectangle as defined in Annex B, paragraph 2.3.2, represents not less than 15% of the surface of that rectangle.

4.5.1.1. In the case of a sample:

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b) For vehicles of categories M and N other than M1, the centre of the rectangle shall be situated within a circle having a radius of 10 cm centred on the projection of point O.

The height of the above rectangle may be reduced to 15 cm for windscreens which are less than 44 cm high or whose angle of installation is less than 15° from the vertical. The percentage of visibility shall at least be equal to 10% of the area of the corresponding rectangle.

4.5.1.2. In the case of a test piece, the centre of the rectangle shall be situated on the greater axis of the test piece at 450 mm from one of its edges.

4.5.2. The test piece(s) or finished part(s) submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from the point of view of fragmentation if either of the following conditions is met:

4.5.2.1. The test gives a satisfactory result for each point of impact, or

4.5.2.2. The test having been repeated on a new set of four test pieces for each point of impact for which it had originally given an unsatisfactory result, the four new tests, performed at the same impact points all give a satisfactory result.

1. Definition of type

Safety glazing materials, as defined in Annexes B to G, if coated on the inner face, with a layer of plastics material, shall conform not only to the requirements of the appropriate annexes but also to the following requirements:

2. Test of resistance to abrasion

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The plastics coating shall be subjected to a test for 100 cycles in accordance with the requirements specified in Annex A, paragraph 4.

2.2. Interpretation of results

The plastics coating shall be considered satisfactory with respect to abrasion resistance if the light scatter as a result of abrasion of the test piece does not exceed 4%.

3. Resistance-to-humidity test

3.1. In the case of plastics-coated toughened safety glazing material a resistance- to-humidity test shall be performed.

3.2. The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 7., shall apply.

4. Test of resistance to temperature changes

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 8, shall apply.

5. Fire-resistance test

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6. Test of resistance to chemicals

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 11, shall apply.

 

1. Definition of type

Glass-plastics windscreens shall be considered to belong to different types if they differ in at least one of the following principal or secondary characteristics:

1.1.The principal characteristics are as follows:

1.1.1. The trade names or marks.

1.1.2. The shape and dimensions

Glass-plastics windscreens shall be deemed to belong to a group for the purposes of tests of mechanical strength, resistance to the environment, resistance to temperature changes and resistance to chemical agents.

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1.1.4. The nominal thickness “e” of the windscreen, a manufacturing tolerance of ±0.2 mm being allowed

1.1.5. The nominal thickness of the layer of glass.

1.1.6. The nominal thickness of the layer(s) of plastics acting as interlayer(s).

1.1.7. The nature and type of the layer(s) of plastics acting as interlayer(s) (e.g. PVB or other material) and of the plastics layer situated on the inner face.

1.1.8. Any special treatment the glazing may have undergone.

1.2. The secondary characteristics are as follows:

1.2.1. The nature of the material (plate glass, float glass, sheet glass).

1.2.2. The colouring (total or partial) of any layer(s) of plastics (colourless or tinted).

1.2.3. The colouring of the glass (colourless or tinted).

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1.2.5. The incorporation or otherwise of opaque obscuration.

2. General

2.1. In the case of glass-plastics windscreens, tests other than headform tests (paragraph 3.2.) and tests of optical qualities shall be conducted on flat test pieces which are either cut from actual windscreens or are specially made for the purpose. However, the test pieces shall be in all respects rigorously representative of the serially-produced windscreens for which approval is sought.

Before each test, the test pieces shall be stored for not less than four hours at a temperature of 23°C ± 2°C. The tests shall take place as soon as possible after the test pieces have been taken out of the receptacle in which they were stored.

3. Headform test

3.1. Indices of difficulty of the secondary characteristics

No secondary characteristic is involved.

3.2. Headform test on a complete windscreen

3.2.1. Number of test pieces

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3.2.2. Test method

3.2.2.1. The method used is that described in paragraph 3.1 of Annex A.

3.2.2.2. The height of drop shall be 1.5 m+0-5 mm.

3.2.3. Interpretation of results

3.2.3.1. This test shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if the following conditions are met:

a) The layer of glass breaks, displaying numerous circular cracks centred approximately on the point of impact, the cracks nearest to the point of impact being not more than 80 mm from it.

b) The layers of glass shall remain adhering to the plastics-material interlayer. One or more partial separations from the interlayer not more than 4 mm in breadth may be allowed on either side of the crack outside a circle 60 mm in diameter centred on the point of impact.

c) A tear in the interlayer of a length up to 35 mm is allowed on the impact side.

3.2.3.2. A set of samples submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from the point of view of the headform test if one of the following conditions is met.

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b) one test having given an unsatisfactory result, a further series of tests carried out on a new set of samples gives satisfactory results.

3.3. Headform test on flat test pieces

3.3.1. Number of test pieces

Six flat test pieces measuring (1100 mm x 500 mm)+5-2 mm are subjected to testing.

3.3.2. Test method

3.3.2.1. The method used is that described in paragraph 3.1 of Annex A.

3.3.2.2. The height of drop shall be 4m+25-0 mm.

3.3.3. Interpretation of results

3.3.3.1. This test is deemed to have given a satisfactory result if the following conditions are fulfilled:

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b) tears in the interlayer are allowed provided that the manikin’s head does not pass through the test piece.

c) no large fragments of glass become detached from the interlayer.

3.3.3.2. A set of test pieces submitted for approval is considered satisfactory from the point of view of the headform test if one of the following two conditions is met:

a) all the tests give satisfactory results, or

b) a test having given an unsatisfactory result, a further series of tests must be carried out on a new set of test pieces and give satisfactory results.

4. Mechanical strength test

4.1. Indices of difficulty, test method and interpretation of results

The requirements of Annex D, paragraph 4, shall apply.

4.2. However the third requirement set out in paragraph 4.3.4.1 of Annex D is not relevant.

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5.1. Test of resistance to abrasion

5.1.1. Test of resistance to abrasion on the outer face

5.1.1.1. The requirements of Annex D, paragraph 5.1, shall apply.

5.1.2. Test of resistance to abrasion on the inner face

5.1.2.1. The requirements of Annex H, paragraph 2, shall apply.

5.2. Test of resistance to high temperature

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 5, shall apply.

5.3. Resistance-to-radiation test

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 6.3, shall apply.

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The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 7, shall apply.

5.5. Test of resistance to temperature changes

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 8, shall apply.

6. Optical qualities

The requirements concerning optical qualities set out in Annex A, paragraph 9, shall apply to each type of windscreen.

7. Fire-resistance test

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 10, shall apply.

8. Test of resistance to chemicals

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 11, shall apply.

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1. Definition of type

Glass-plastics panes shall be considered to belong to different types if they differ in at least one of the following principal or secondary characteristics.

1.1.The principal characteristics are as follows:

1.1.1. The trade names or marks.

1.1.2. The thickness category applicable to the nominal thickness “e” a manufacturing tolerance of ±0.2 mm being allowed:

Category 1                                           e £ 3.5 mm

Category 2                            3.5 mm < e £ 4.5 mm

Category 3                                           e > 4.5 mm

1.1.3. The nominal thickness of the layer(s) of plastics material acting as interlayer(s)       .

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1.1.5. The type of the layer(s) of plastics material acting as interlayer(s) (e.g. PVB or other material) and of the plastics layer on the inner face.

1.1.6. Any special treatment the glazing may have undergone.

1.2. The secondary characteristics are as follows:

1.2.1. The nature of the material (polished (plate) glass, float glass, sheet glass).

1.2.2. The colouring (total or partial) of any layer(s) of plastics (colourless or tinted).

1.2.3. The colouring of the glass (colourless or tinted).

1.2.4. The incorporation or otherwise of opaque obscuration.

2. General

2.1. In the case of glass-plastics panes the tests shall be conducted on flat test pieces which are either cut from normal glass panes or are specially made. In either case the test pieces shall be in all respects rigorously representative of the glass panes for the production of which approval is sought.

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2.3. The provisions of this annex shall be considered to be met if the glass pane submitted for approval has the same composition as that of a windscreen already approved under the provisions of Annex I.

3. Headform test

3.1. Indices of difficulty of the secondary characteristics

No secondary characteristic is involved.

3.2. Number of test pieces

Six test pieces measuring (1100 mm x 500 mm)+5-2 mm are subjected to testing.

3.3. Test method

3.3.1. The method used shall be that described in Annex A, paragraph 3.1.

3.3.2. The height of drop shall be 1.50+0-5 mm.

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3.4.1. This test is deemed to have given a satisfactory result if the following conditions are fulfilled:

3.4.1.1. the test piece breaks, displaying numerous circular cracks.

3.4.1.2. tears in the interlayer are allowed provided that the manikin’s head does not pass through the test piece.

3.4.1.3. no large fragments of glass become detached from the interlayer.

3.4.2. A set of test pieces submitted for approval is considered satisfactory from the point of view of the headform test if one of the following two conditions is met:

3.4.2.1. all the tests have given a satisfactory result.

3.4.2.2. one test having given an unsatisfactory result, a further series of tests carried out on a new set of test pieces gives satisfactory results.

4. Mechanical strength test - 227 g ball test

4.1. The provisions of Annex E, paragraph 4, shall apply, with the exception of the table in paragraph 4.3.2., to be replaced by:

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Thickness

(mm)

Height of drop(1)

(m)

e £ 3.5

5

3.5 < e £ 4.5

6

e > 4.5

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Note: (1) the tolerance is +25 mm

4.2. However the provision in Annex E, paragraph 4.4.1.2, is not relevant.

5. Test of resistance to the environment

5.1. Test of resistance to abrasion

5.1.1. Test of resistance to abrasion on the outer face

The requirements of Annex E, paragraph 5.1, shall apply.

5.1.2. Test of resistance to abrasion on the inner face

5.1.2.1. The requirements of Annex H, paragraph 2.1., shall apply.

5.2. Test of resistance to high temperature

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5.3. Resistance-to-radiation test

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 6.3, shall apply.

5.4. Resistance-to-humidity test

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 7, shall apply.

5.5. Test of resistance to temperature changes

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 8, shall apply.

6. Optical qualities

The provisions concerning the regular light transmittance set out in Annex A, paragraph 9.1., shall apply to glass glazing or parts of glass panes located at places which are essential to the driver's vision.

7. Fire-resistance test

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8. Test of resistance to chemicals

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 11, shall apply.

1. Definition of type

Double-glazed units shall be considered to belong to different types if they differ in at least one of the following principal or secondary characteristics.

1.1.The principal characteristics are as follows:

1.1.1. The trade names or marks.

1.1.2. The composition of the double-glazed unit (symmetrical, asymmetrical).

1.1.3. The type of each component glass pane as defined in paragraph 1 of Annexes C, E or K to this Regulation.

1.1.4. The nominal width of the gap between the two glass panes.

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1.2. The secondary characteristics are as follows:

1.2.1. The secondary characteristics of each component glass pane, as defined in paragraph 1.2. of Annexes C, E or K to this Regulation.

2. General

2.1. Each component glass pane forming the double-glazed unit shall either be type-approved or subjected to the requirements set out in the relevant annex to this Regulation (Annexes C, E or K).

2.2. Tests carried out on double-glazed units having a nominal width of gap “e” shall be considered to be applicable to all double-glazed units having the same characteristics and a nominal width of gap e ±3 mm.

However, the applicant for approval may submit for approval tests the sample having the smallest gap and the sample having the largest gap.

2.3. In the case of double-glazed units having at least one laminated glass pane or one glass-plastics pane, the test pieces shall be stored for at least four hours prior to the test at a temperature of 23°C ± 2°C. The tests shall take place as soon as possible after the test pieces or samples have been taken out of the receptacle in which they were stored.

3. Headform test

3.1. Indices of difficulty of the secondary characteristics

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3.2. Number of test pieces

Six test pieces (1100 mm x 500 mm)+5-2 mm shall be subjected to testing for each category of thickness of the component glass panes and each width of gap as defined in paragraph 1.1.4. above.

3.3. Test method

3.3.1. The method used is that described in paragraph 3.1 of Annex A.

3.3.2. The height of drop shall be 1.5m+0-5 mm.

3.3.3. In the case of an asymmetrical double-glazed unit, three tests shall be carried out on one side and three tests on the other side.

3.4. Interpretation of results

3.4.1. Double glazing consisting of two uniformly-toughened glass panes

The test shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if both components break.

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The test shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if the following conditions are met:

3.4.2.1. The two components of the test piece yield and break, displaying numerous circular cracks centred approximately on the point of impact.

3.4.2.2. Tears in the interlayer(s) are allowed provided that the manikin's head does no pass through the test piece.

3.4.2.3. No large fragment of glass becomes detached from the interlayer.

3.4.3. Double glazing consisting of a uniformly-toughened glass pane and of a laminated glass pane or glass-plastics pane:

3.4.3.1. The toughened-glass pane breaks.

3.4.3.2. The laminated glass pane or glass-plastics pane yields and breaks, displaying numerous circular cracks centred approximately on the point of impact.

3.4.3.3. Tears in the interlayer(s) are allowed provided that the manikin's head does not pass through the test piece.

3.4.3.4. No large fragments of glass become detached from the interlayer.

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3.4.2.1. all the tests have given a satisfactory result.

3.4.2.2. one test having given an unsatisfactory result, a further series of tests carried out on a new set of test pieces gives satisfactory results.

4. Optical qualities

The provisions concerning the regular light transmittance set out in Annex A, paragraph 9.1., shall apply to double glazed units or parts of double-glazed units located at places which are essential to the driver's vision.

1. The windscreen's features taken into account are:

The developed area.

1.2. The height of segment.

1.3. The curvature.

2. A group is made up of a thickness class

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The five largest and the five smallest developed areas shall be selected, and shall be numbered as follows:

1 for the largest                                                 1 for the smallest

2 for the next largest after 1                               2 for the next smallest after 1

3 for the next largest after 2                               3 for the next smallest after 2

4 for the next largest after 3                               4 for the next smallest after 3

5 for the next largest after 4                               5 for the next smallest after 4

4. Within each of the two series defined under paragraph 3 above, the heights of segment shall be indicated as follows:

1 for the greatest height of segment

2 for the next greatest

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5. Within each of the two series defined under paragraph 3. above, the curvatures shall be indicated as follows:

1 for the smallest curvature

2 for the next smallest

3 for the next smallest, etc.

 

6. The numbers assigned to each windscreen in the two series defined under paragraph 3 above shall be added together.

6.1. The windscreen among those having the five largest areas which has the smallest total, and the windscreen among those having the five smallest areas which has the smallest total, shall be subjected to complete tests as defined in one of Annexes B, D, G, H and I.

6.2. The other windscreens of the same series shall be subjected to the tests of optical qualities described in Annex A, paragraph 9.

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8. The limits of the group are determined by developed area of windscreen. Where a windscreen submitted for type-approval has a developed area outside the approved limits and/or has a significantly greater height of segment or a significantly smaller curvature, it shall be considered to be of a new type and shall be subjected to additional tests if the technical service deems such tests technically necessary, having regard to the information already in its possession concerning the product and the material used.

9. Should any other windscreen model subsequently be manufactured by the holder of an approval in a thickness class already approved:

9.1. It shall be ascertained whether that model can be included among the five largest or the five smallest selected for approval of the group in question.

9.2. Numbering by the procedures defined in paragraphs 3., 4. and 5. above shall be performed again.

9.3. If the sum of the numbers assigned to the windscreen newly incorporated among the five largest or the five smallest windscreens

9.3.1. Is found to be the smallest, the following tests shall be carried out:

9.3.1.1. For toughened-glass windscreens.

a) Fragmentation.

b) Headform test.

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d) Separation of secondary image.

dd) Light transmission.

9.3.1.2. For ordinary laminated-glass or glass-plastics windscreens.

a) Headform test.

b) Optical distortion.

c) Separation of secondary image.

dd) Light transmission.

9.3.1.3. For treated laminated-glass windscreens, the tests prescribed in paragraphs 9.3.1.

9.3.1.4. For windscreens faced with plastics material, the tests prescribed in paragraph 9.3.1.1 or 9.3.1.2, as the case may be.

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1. Definition of type

Rigid plastic glazings shall be considered to belong to different types if they differ in at least one of the following principal or secondary characteristics.

1.1. The principal characteristics are as follows

1.1.1. The trade names or marks.

1.1.2. The chemical designation of the material.

1.1.3. The classification of the material by the manufacturer.

1.1.4. The process of manufacture.

1.1.5. The shape and dimensions.

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1.1.7. The colouring of the plastic product.

1.1.8. The nature of the surface coating.

1.2. The secondary characteristics are as follows:

The presence or absence of conductors or heating elements.

2. General

2.1. In the case of rigid plastic panes the tests shall be conducted either on flat test pieces rigorously representative of the finished product or on finished parts. All optical measurements shall be carried out on real parts.

2.2. The test pieces shall be freed from protecting maskings and have to be cleaned carefully before the test.

2.2.1. They shall be stored for 48 hours at a temperature of 230C ± 20C and a relative humidity of 50% ± 5%.

2.3. To describe the breaking behaviour under dynamical stress, classes will be created depending on the application of the plastics. These classes are related to contact probabilities of the human head with the plastic glazing and they contain different requirements concerning the headform test.

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3.1. Indices of difficulty of the secondary characteristics

No secondary characteristic is involved.

3.2. Number of test pieces

One flat test piece measuring 300 mm x 25 mm shall be subjected to testing.

3.3. Test method

The method used is that described in paragraph 12 of Annex A.

3.4. Interpretation of results

For a test piece or sample to be considered rigid the vertical deflection of the test piece shall be less than or equal to 50 mm after 60 seconds.

4. Headform test

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No secondary characteristic is involved.

4.2. Number of test pieces

Six flat test pieces measuring 1170 x 570+0-2 mm or six complete parts shall be subjected to testing.

4.3. Test method

4.3.1. The method used is that described in paragraph 3.2 of Annex A.

4.3.2. For glazing like partitions and separating windows which have impact probability, the drop height shall be 3 m. The HIC value is also to be measured.

4.3.3. For glazing like side windows, back windows and sunroofs which have reduced impact possibilities, the drop height shall be 1.5 m. The HIC value is also to be measured.

4.3.4. For glazing which do not have contact possibilities as well as for small windows in vehicles and for all windows in trailers, there will be no headform testing. A small window is a window into which a 150 mm diameter circle cannot be scribed.

4.4. Interpretation of results

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4.4.1.The test piece or sample is not penetrated nor shall it break into fully separate large pieces.

4.4.2. The HIC value is less than 1,000.

4.4.3. A set of test pieces submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from the point of view of the headform test if one of the following conditions is met:

4.4.3.1. All the tests give satisfactory results, or

4.4.3.2. One test having an unsatisfactory result, a further series of tests carried out on a new set of test pieces give satisfactory results.

5. Mechanical strength test - 227 g ball test

5.1. Indices of difficulty of the secondary characteristics

 

Index of difficulty

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1

With conductors or heating elements

2

5.2. Number of test pieces

Ten flat square pieces 300+10-0 mm or ten substantially flat finished parts shall be subjected to testing.

5.3.1. Test method

5.3.1. The method used is that described in paragraph 2.1 of Annex A.

5.3.2. The height of drop for the various thickness values is given in the table below:

Table 13. Height of drop for the various thickness values

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 (mm)

Height of drop

(m)

< 3

2

4

3

5

4

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5

Note: For intermediate values of test piece thickness in the interval between 3 mm and 6 mm the height of drop shall be interpolated.

5.4. Interpretation of results

5.4.1. The test shall be deemed to have given a satisfactory result if the following conditions are fulfilled:

- The ball does not penetrate the test piece;

- The test piece does not break into separate pieces;

- As a result of the impact, cracks and fissures in the sheet are however permissible.

5.4.2. A set of test pieces submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from the point of view of the 227 g ball test if one of the following conditions is met:

5.4.2.1. Eight or more separate tests give a satisfactory result at the drop height.

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5.5. 227 g ball test at - 180C ± 20C

5.5.1. To minimize the temperature change of the test piece, the test shall be performed within 30 seconds of the removal of the test piece from the conditioning appliance.

5.5.2. The test method shall be that described in paragraph 5.3. of this annex, except that the test temperature is -180C ± 20C.

5.5.3. Interpretation of results as in paragraph 5.4. of this Annex.

6. Test of resistance to the environment

6.1. Test of resistance to abrasion

6.1.1. Indices of difficulty and test method

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 4, shall apply; the test is performed for either 1,000, 500 or 100 cycles to measure abrasion of the surface of the product.

6.1.2. Three flat square test pieces of 100 mm side for each type of surface shall be subjected to testing.

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6.1.3.1. In the case of glazing of class L, the abrasion test shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if the total light scatter after abrasion does not exceed 2% after 1,000 cycles on the outer surface of the test piece and 4% after 100 cycles on the inner surface of the test piece.

6.1.3.1. In the case of glazing of class M, the abrasion test shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if the total light scatter after abrasion does not exceed 10% after 500 cycles on the outer surface of the test piece and 4 after 100 cycles on the inner surface of the test piece.

6.1.3.3. For sun roofs, no abrasion test is required.

6.1.4. A set of test pieces for approval shall be considered satisfactory if one of the following conditions is met:

- All test pieces meet the requirements; or

- One test piece having failed, a repeat of the tests on a new set of test pieces gives a satisfactory result.

6.2. Test of resistance to simulated weathering

6.2.1. Indices of difficulty and test method

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 6.4., shall apply. The total ultraviolet radiant exposure with the long arc xenon lamp shall be 500 MJ/m2. During irradiation the test pieces shall be exposed to water spray in continuous cycles.

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Other methods giving equivalent results shall be allowed.

6.2.2. Number of test pieces

Three flat test pieces 130 mm x 40 mm cut from a flat sheet sample shall be subjected to testing.

6.2.3. Interpretation of results

6.2.3.1. The resistance to the simulated weathering shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if:

6.2.3.1.1. The light transmittance measured in accordance with Annex A, paragraph 9.1. does not fall below 95% of the pre-weathering value. Additionally, for windows which are required for driver visibility the value shall not fall below 70%.

6.2.3.1.2. No bubbles or other visible decompositions, discolorations, milkiness or crazing shall occur during weathering.

6.2.4. A set of test pieces submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from the point of view of the resistance to simulated weathering if one of the following conditions is met:

6.2.4.1. All test pieces have given a satisfactory result.

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6.3. Cross-cut test

6.3.1. Indices of difficulty and test method

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 13., shall apply only to coated rigid products.

6.3.2. The cross-cut test shall be carried out on one of the test pieces from paragraph 6.2.

6.3.3. Interpretation of results

6.3.3.1. The cross-cut test shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if:

The cross-cut value Gt1 is met.

6.3.3.2. The test piece shall be considered satisfactory from the point of view of approval if one of the following conditions is met:

6.3.3.2.1. The test has given satisfactory results.

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6.4. Resistance-to-humidity test

6.4.1. Indices of difficulty and test method

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 7, shall apply.

6.4.2. Ten flat square test pieces of 300 mm side shall be subjected to testing.

6.4.3. Interpretation of results

6.4.3.1. The humidity test shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if:

6.4.3.1.1. No visible decompositions like bubbles or milkiness occur on any sample,

6.4.3.1.2. And if the light transmittance measured according to Annex A, paragraph 9.1 does not fall to less than 95% of the pre-test value and additionally to no less than 70% for any window required for driver visibility.

6.4.4. After testing the test pieces shall be stored for at least 48 hours at a temperature of 230C ± 20C v and a relative humidity of 50 ± 5%, and then subjected to the 227 g ball drop test described under item 5 of this Annex.

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The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 9.1. shall apply for products which are requisite for driver visibility.

7.1. Interpretation of results

A set of test pieces shall be considered as satisfactory if one of the following conditions is met:

7.1.1. All test pieces give satisfactory results.

7.1.2. One test piece having given an unsatisfactory result, a further set of test pieces gives satisfactory results.

8. Fire-resistance test

8.1. Indices of difficulty and test method

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 10, shall apply.

8.2. Interpretation of results

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8.2.1. For the purpose of approval a set of samples will be considered satisfactory if one of the following conditions is met:

8.2.1.1. All samples give a satisfactory result.

8.2.1.2. One test piece having given an unsatisfactory result, a further set of test pieces gives satisfactory results.

9. Test of resistance to chemicals

9.1. Indices of difficulty and test method

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 11, shall apply.

9.2. Interpretation of results

A set of samples shall be considered acceptable if one of the following conditions is met:

9.2.1. All samples give satisfactory results.

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1. Definition of type

Flexible plastic panes shall be considered to belong to different types if they differ in at least one of the following principal or secondary characteristics.

1.1. The principal characteristics are as follows

1.1.1. The trade names or marks;

1.1.2. The chemical designation of the material.

1.1.3. The classification of the material by the manufacturer.

1.1.4. The process of manufacture.

1.1.5. The nominal thickness (e), a manufacturing tolerance being allowed: ± (0.1mm + 0.1e); d > 0.1 mm.

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1.1.7. The nature of the surface coating.

1.2. The secondary characteristics are as follows:

No secondary characteristic is involved.

2. General

2.1. In the case of flexible plastic glazings the tests shall be conducted on flat test pieces which either are cut from finished products or are specially produced for that purpose. In both cases the test piece shall in every respect be rigorously representative for the glazing which are produced in the run and for which approval is being sought.

2.2. The test pieces shall be freed from protecting masks and have to be cleaned carefully before the test.

They shall be stored for 48 hours at a temperature of 23°C ± 2°C and a relative humidity of 50 ± 5%.

3. Flexibility test and fold test

3.1. Indices of difficulty of the secondary characteristics

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3.2. Number of test pieces

One flat test piece measuring 300 mm x 25 mm shall be subjected to testing.

3.3. Test method

The method used is that described in paragraph 12 of Annex A.

3.4. Interpretation of results

For a test piece or sample to be considered flexible its vertical deflection shall be more than 50 mm after 60 seconds.

10 seconds after a 180° folding, the material must not show any fracture or damage at the point of bending.

4. Mechanical strength test

4.1. Indices of difficulty of the secondary characteristics

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4.2. 227 g ball test at 20°C ± 5°C

4.2.1. Number of test pieces

Ten flat square pieces 300 +10-0 mm shall be subjected to testing.

4.2.2. Test method

4.2.2.1. The method used is that described in paragraph 2.1 of Annex A.

4.2.2.2. The height of drop is 2 m for all thicknesses.

4.2.3. Interpretation of results

4.2.3.1. The ball test shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if the ball does not penetrate the test piece.

4.2.3.2. A set of test pieces submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from the point of view of the 227 g ball test if one of the following conditions is met:

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4.2.3.2.2. More than two tests having given an unsatisfactory result at the minimum height of drop, a further series of tests carried out on a new set of test pieces gives satisfactory results.

4.3. 227 g ball test at -180C ± 20C

4.3.1. To minimize the temperature change of the test piece the test shall be performed within 30 seconds of the removal of the test piece from the conditioning appliance.

4.3.2. The test method shall be that described in paragraph 4.2.2. of this Annex, except that the test piece temperature is -180C ± 20C.

4.3.3. Interpretation of results as in paragraph 4.2.3. of this Annex.

5. Test of resistance to the environment

5.1. Test of resistance to simulated weathering

5.1.1. Indices of difficulty and test method

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 6.4., shall apply. The total ultraviolet radiant exposure with the long arc xenon lamp shall be 500 MJ/m2. During irradiation the test pieces shall be exposed to water spray in continuous cycles.

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5.1.1.1. Other methods giving equivalent results shall be allowed.

5.1.2. Number of test pieces

Three flat test pieces 130 mm x 40 mm cut from a flat sheet sample shall be subjected to testing.

5.1.3. Interpretation of results

The resistance to the simulated weathering test shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if:

5.1.3.1. The light transmittance measured in accordance with Annex 3, paragraph 9.1. does not fall below 95% of the pre-weathering value. Additionally, for windows which are required for driver visibility the value shall not fall below 70 %.

5.1.3.2. No bubbles or other visible decompositions, discolorations, milkiness or crazing shall occur during weathering.

5.1.4. A set of test pieces submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from the point of view of the resistance to simulated weathering if one of the following conditions is met:

5.1.4.1. All test pieces have given a satisfactory result.

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6. Optical qualities

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 9.1. shall apply for products which are requisite for driver visibility.

6.1. Interpretation of results

A set of samples shall be considered acceptable if one of the following conditions is met:

6.1.1. All samples give a satisfactory result.

6.1.2. One test piece having given an unsatisfactory result, a further set of test pieces gives satisfactory results.

7. Fire-resistance test

7.1. Indices of difficulty and test method

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 10, shall apply.

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The fire-resistance test shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if the burning rate is less than 110 mm/min.

7.2.1. For the purpose of approval a set of samples will be considered satisfactory if one of the following conditions is met:

7.2.1.1. All samples give a satisfactory result.

7.2.1.2. One test piece having given an unsatisfactory result, a further set of test pieces gives satisfactory results.

8. Test of resistance to chemicals

8.1. Indices of difficulty and test method

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 11, shall apply.

8.2. Interpretation of results

A set of samples shall be considered acceptable if one of the following conditions is met:

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8.2.2. One test piece having given an unsatisfactory result, a further set of test pieces gives satisfactory results.

1. Definition of type

Double glazed units shall be considered to belong to different types if they differ in at least one of the following principal or secondary characteristics:

1.1. The principal characteristics are as follows

1.1.1. The trade names or marks;

1.1.2. The chemical designation of the component sheets.

1.1.3. The classification of the material by the manufacturer.

1.1.4. The thickness of the component sheets.

1.1.5. The process of window manufacture.

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1.1.7. The colouring of the plastic product.

1.1.8. The nature of the surface coating.

1.2. The secondary characteristics are as follows:

No secondary characteristic is involved.

2. General

2.1. In the case of rigid plastic double glazed units, tests will be performed on either flat test pieces or finished parts depending upon test requirements.

2.2. The test pieces shall be freed from protecting maskings and have to be cleaned carefully before the test. They shall be stored for 24 hours at a temperature of 23°C ± 2°C and a relative humidity of 50 ± 5%.

2.3. The nominal thickness tolerance for extruded plastic products is ±10% of the nominal thickness. For plastic products produced by other techniques (e.g. cast acrylic sheet), the acceptable thickness tolerance is given by the equation: Thickness tolerance limits (mm) = (0.4 + 0.1e) mm, Where e is the sheet nominal thickness.

Reference standard is ISO 7823/1.

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2.4. Test carried out on rigid plastic double glazed units having a nominal width of gap e measured at the geometrical centre shall be considered to be applicable to all rigid plastic double glazed units having the same characteristics and a nominal width of gap e ± 5 mm.

The applicant for approval may alternatively submit the sample having the largest and smallest nominal gaps.

3. Flexibility test

3.1. Indices of difficulty of the secondary characteristics

No secondary characteristic is involved.

3.2. Number of test pieces

One test piece for each component sheet of the window measuring 300 mm x 25 mm shall be subjected to testing.

3.3. Test method

The method used shall be that described in Annex A, paragraph 12.

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The vertical deviation of both component sheets shall be less than 50 mm after 60 seconds.

4. Headform test

4.1. Indices of difficulty of the secondary characteristics

No secondary characteristic is involved.

4.2. Number of test pieces

Six representative windows of size 1170+0-2 x 570+0-2 mm in both directions shall be subjected to testing. The test pieces will have provision for peripheral clamping.

4.3. Test method

4.3.1. The test method used shall be that described in Annex A, paragraph 3.2. Impact will be on the inner side of the window.

4.3.2. For glazing like partitions and separating windows which have high impact probability the drop height shall be 3 m. The HIC value is also to be measured.

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4.3.4. For glazing which do not have contact possibilities such as windows in trailer caravans as well as for small windows there will be no headform testing. A small window is a window into which a 150 mm diameter circle cannot be scribed.

4.4. Interpretation of results

The test shall be deemed to have given a satisfactory result if the following conditions are fulfilled:

4.4.1. The test piece is not penetrated nor shall it break into fully separate large pieces.

4.4.2. The HIC value is less than 1,000.

4.4.3. A set of test pieces submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from the point of view of the headform test if one of the following conditions is met:

4.4.3.1. All the tests give satisfactory results, or

4.4.3.2. One test having given an unsatisfactory result, a further series of tests carried out on a new set of test pieces gives satisfactory results.

5. Mechanical strength test 227 g ball test

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No secondary characteristic is involved.

5.2. Number of test pieces

Ten flat test pieces of the outer component sheet or ten finished parts of size 300+10-0 x 300+10-0 mm shall be subjected to testing.

5.3. Test method

5.3.1. The method used is that described in paragraph 2.1 of Annex A.

Impact will be on the outer side of the test window.

5.3.2. The height of drop for the various thickness values of the outer component of the window is given in the table below:

Table 14. Height of drop for the various thickness values

Thickness

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Height of drop

(m)

< 3

2

4

3

5

4

> 6

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For intermediate values of thickness in the interval between 3 mm and 6 mm the height of drop shall be interpolated.

5.4. Interpretation of results

5.4.1. The test shall be deemed to have given a satisfactory result if the following conditions are fulfilled:

- The ball does not penetrate the test piece;

- The test piece does not break into separate pieces.

5.4.2. A set of test pieces submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from the point of view of the 227 g ball test if one of the following conditions is met:

5.4.2.1. Eight or more separate tests give a satisfactory result at the drop height.

5.4.2.2. Three or more tests having given an unsatisfactory result, a further series of tests carried out on a new set of test pieces gives satisfactory results.

5.5. 227 g ball test at -18°C ± 2°C

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5.5.2. The test method shall be that described in paragraph 5.3. of this annex, except that the test temperature is -180C ± 20C.

5.5.3. Interpretation of results as in paragraph 5.4. of this Annex.

6. Test of resistance to the environment

6.1. Test of resistance to abrasion

6.1.1. Indices of difficulty and test method

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 4., shall apply; the test is performed for either 1,000, 500 or 100 cycles to measure abrasion of the surface of the product.

6.1.2. Three flat square test pieces of 100 mm side for each type of surface shall be subjected to testing.

6.1.3. Interpretation of results

6.1.3.1. In the case of glazing of class L, the abrasion test shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if the total light scatter after abrasion does not exceed 2% after 1,000 cycles on the outer surface of the test sample and 4% after 100 cycles on the inner surface of the test sample.

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6.1.3.3. For sun roofs, no abrasion test is required.

6.1.4. For the purpose of approval a set of samples will be considered satisfactory if one of the following conditions is met:

- All samples meet the requirements; or

- One sample having failed, a repeat of the tests on a new set of samples gives a satisfactory result.

6.2. Test of resistance to simulated weathering

6.2.1. Indices of difficulty and test method

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 6.4. shall apply. The total ultraviolet radiant exposure with the long arc xenon lamp shall be 500 MJ/m2. During irradiation the test pieces shall be exposed to water spray in continuous cycles.

During a cycle of 120 minutes the test pieces are exposed to light without water spray for 102 minutes and to light with water spray for 18 minutes.

6.2.1.1. Other methods giving equivalent results shall be allowed.

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Three flat test pieces 130 mm x 40 mm cut from the outer skin of the window shall be subjected to testing.

6.2.3. Interpretation of results

6.2.3.1. The resistance to the simulated weathering shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if:

6.2.3.1.1. The light transmittance measured in accordance with Annex A, paragraph 9.1 does not fall below 95 per cent of the pre-weathering value. Additionally, for windows which are required for driver visibility the value shall not fall below 70%.

6.2.3.1.2. No bubbles or other visible decompositions, discolorations, milkiness or crazing shall occur during weathering.

6.2.4. A set of test pieces submitted for approval shall be considered satisfactory from the point of view of the resistance to simulated weathering if one of the following conditions is met:

6.2.4.1. All test pieces have given a satisfactory result.

6.2.4.2. One test piece having given an unsatisfactory result, a further series of tests carried out on a new set of test pieces gives satisfactory results.

6.3. Cross-cut test

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The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 13, shall apply only to coated products.

6.3.2. The cross-cut test shall be carried out on one of the test pieces from paragraph 6.2.

6.3.3. Interpretation of results

6.3.3.1. The cross-cut test shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if: The cross-cut value Gt1 is met

6.3.3.2. The test piece shall be considered satisfactory from the point of view of approval if one of the following conditions is met:

6.3.3.2.1. The test has given satisfactory results.

6.3.3.2.2. The test having given an unsatisfactory result, a further test carried out on another remaining test piece from the test in paragraph 6.2. gives satisfactory results.

6.4. Resistance-to-humidity test

6.4.1. Indices of difficulty and test method

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6.4.2. Ten square pieces or test windows of 300 x 300 mm shall be subjected to testing.

6.4.3. Interpretation of results

6.4.3.1. The humidity test shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if:

6.4.3.1.1. No visible decompositions like bubbles or milkiness occur on any sample.

6.4.3.1.2. and if the light transmittance measured according to Annex A, paragraph 9.1. does not fall to less than 95 per cent of the pre-test value and additionally to no less than 70 per cent for any window required for driver visibility.

6.4.4. After testing the test pieces shall be stored for at least 48 hours at a temperature of 23°C ± 2°C and a relative humidity of 50 ± 5%, and then subjected to the 227 g ball drop test described under paragraph 5 of this Annex.

7. Optical qualities

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 9.1. shall apply for products which are requisite for driver visibility.

7.1. Interpretation of results

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7.1.1. All samples give a satisfactory result.

7.1.2. One test piece having given an unsatisfactory result, a further set of test pieces gives satisfactory results.

8. Fire-resistance test

8.1. Indices of difficulty and test method

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 10, shall apply.

8.2. Interpretation of results

The test needs to be performed separately on both surfaces of the double glazed unit.

The fire-resistance test shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if the burning rate is less than 110 mm/min.

8.2.1. For the purpose of approval a set of samples will be considered satisfactory if one of the following conditions is met:

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8.2.1.2. One test piece having given an unsatisfactory result, a further set of test pieces gives satisfactory results.

9. Test of resistance to chemicals

9.1. Indices of difficulty and test method

The requirements of Annex A, paragraph 11, shall apply.

The fire-resistance test shall be considered to have given a satisfactory result if the burning rate is less than 110 mm/min.

9.2. Interpretation of results

A set of samples shall be considered acceptable if one of the following conditions is met:

9.2.1. All samples give a satisfactory result.

9.2.2. One test piece having given an unsatisfactory result, a further set of test pieces gives satisfactory results.

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Figure 1. Determination of the height of segment “h”

In the case of a safety glazing pane having a simple curvature, the height of segment will be equal to: h1 maximum.

In the case of a safety glazing pane having a double curvature, the height of segment will be equal to: h1 maximum + h2 maximum.

Figure 2. Prescribed points of impact for windscreens

a)

1. Width 7 cm minimum

2. Zone F1

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4. Zone F3

5. Width 5 cm minimum

b)

1. Zone F1

2. Zone F2

3. Zone F3

4. Width 5 cm maximum

5. Width 7 cm minimum

 

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Figure 3a. Flat glass pane

Figure 3b. Flat glass pane

Figure 3c. Curved glass pane

The points shown in Figures 3a, 3b, and 3c are examples of the sites for the points of impact prescribed in Annex C, paragraph 2.5.

 

Procedure for determining test areas on windscreens of M1 vehicles in relation to the "V" points

1. Position of the "V" points

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1.2. Table 15 gives the basic co-ordinates for a design seat-back angle of 25°. The positive direction of the co-ordinates is shown in this annex, Figure 3.

Table 15. Basic co-ordinates

Unit: mm

V point

X

Y

Z

V1

68

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665

V2

68

- 5

589

1.3. Correction for design seat-back angles other than 25°.

1.3.1. Table 16 shows the further corrections to be made to the X and Z co-ordinates of each "V" point when the design seat-back angle is not 25°. The positive direction of the co-ordinates is shown in this annex, Figure 3.

Table 16. Corrections made to X and Z co-ordinates

Seat-back angle

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Horizontal co-ordinates X

(mm)

Vertical co-ordinates Z

(mm)

Seat-back angle

(in °)

Horizontal co-ordinates X

(mm)

Vertical co-ordinates Z

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5

-186

28

23

-17

5

6

-176

27

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-9

2

7

-167

27

25

0

0

8

...

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26

26

9

- 3

9

-147

26

27

17

...

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...

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10

-137

25

28

26

- 8

11

-128

24

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34

-11

12

-118

23

30

43

-14

13

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22

31

51

-17

14

- 99

21

32

59

...

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...

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15

- 90

20

33

67

- 24

16

- 81

18

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76

- 28

17

- 71

17

35

84

- 31

18

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15

36

92

- 35

19

- 53

13

37

100

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20

- 44

11

38

107

- 43

21

- 35

9

...

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...

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115

- 47

22

- 26

7

40

123

- 52

2. Test areas

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2.2. Test area "A" is the area of the outer surface of the windscreen bounded by the intersection of the following four planes (see Figure 1):

(a) A plane inclined upwards from the X axis at 3°, passing through V1, and parallel to the Y axis (plane 1).

(b) A plane inclined downwards from the X axis at 1°, passing through V2, and parallel to the Y axis (plane 2).

(c) A vertical plane passing through V1 and V2 and inclined at 13° to the left of the X axis in the case of left-hand drive vehicles and to the right of the X axis in the case of right-hand drive vehicles (plane 3).

(d) A vertical plane passing through V1 and V2 and inclined at 20° to the right of the X axis in the case of left-hand drive vehicles, to the left of the X axis in the case of right-hand drive vehicles (plane 4).

2.2. Test area "B" is the area of the outer surface of the windscreen bounded by the intersection of the following four planes (see Figure 2a):

(a) A plane inclined upwards from the X axis at 7°, passing through V1, and parallel to the Y axis (plane 5).

(b) A plane inclined downwards from the X axis at 5°, passing through V2, and parallel to the Y axis (plane 6).

(c) A vertical plane passing through V1 and V2 and inclined at 17° to the left of the X axis in the case of left-hand drive vehicles and to the right of the X axis in the case of right-hand drive vehicles (plane 7).

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2.4. The "reduced test area B" is test area B with the exclusion of the following areas1) (see Figures 2 and 3).

Note: But taking into account the fact that the datum points as defined under paragraph 2.5. shall be located in the transparent area.

2.4.1. The test area A defined under paragraph 2.2., extended according to paragraph 9.2.2.1 of Annex A.

2.4.2. At the discretion of the vehicle manufacturer, one of the two following paragraphs may apply:

2.4.2.1. Any opaque obscuration bounded downwards by plane 1 and laterally by plane 4 and its symmetrical in relation to the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle (plane 4').

2.4.2.2. Any opaque obscuration bounded downwards by plane 1 provided it is inscribed in an area 300 mm wide centred on the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle and provided the opaque obscuration below the plane 5 trace is inscribed in an area limited laterally by the traces of planes passing by the limits of a 150 mm1) wide segment2 and parallel respectively to the traces of planes 4 and 4'.

Note: 1) Measured on the outer surface of the windscreen and on the trace of plane 1.

2.4.3. Any opaque obscuration bounded by the intersection of the outer surface of the windscreen:

(a) With a plane inclined downwards from the X axis at 4°, passing through V2, and parallel to the Y axis (plane 9);

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(c) With planes 7 and 8 or the edge of the outer surface of the windscreen if the intersection of plane 6 with plane 7 (plane 6 with plane 8) doesn't cross the outer surface of the windscreen.

2.4.4. Any opaque obscuration bounded by the intersection of the outer surface of the windscreen:

(a) With a horizontal plane passing through V1 (pane 10);

(b) With plane 3(1);

(c) With plane 7(2) or the edge of the outer surface of the windscreen if the intersection of plane 6 with plane 7 (plane 6 with plane 8) doesn't cross the outer surface of the windscreen.

(d) With plane 9;

Notes:

(1) For the other side of the windscreen, with a symmetrical plane with respect to plane 3 in relation to the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle.

(2) For the other side of the windscreen, with plane 8.

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2.5. Definition of the datum points (see Figure 3)

The datum points are points situated at the intersection with the outer surface of the windscreen of lines radiating forward from the V points.

2.5.1. Upper vertical datum point forward of V1 and 7° above the horizontal (Pr1);

2.5.1. Lower vertical datum point forward of V2 and 5° below the horizontal (Pr2);

2.5.3. Horizontal datum point forward of V1 and 17° to the left (Pr3);

2.5.4. Three additional datum points symmetrical to the points defined under paragraphs 2.5.1. to 2.5.3. in relation to the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle (respectively P'r1, P'r2, P'r3).

CL: trace of the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle

Pi: trace of the relevant plane (see text)

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Figure 1. Test area "A" (example of Central Driving Position)

 

CL: trace of the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle

Pi: trace of the relevant plane (see text)

 

Figure 2a. Reduced test area "B" (example of a left-hand steering control vehicle) - upper obscuration area as defined in paragraph 2.4.2.2.

CL: trace of the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle

Pi: trace of the relevant plane (see text)

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CL: trace of the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle

Pri: datum points

a, b, c, d: co-ordinates of "V" points (see text)

Figure 3. Determination of the datum points (example of a left-hand steering control vehicle)

1. Definitions

For the purpose of this Annex:

"Type of product" means all glazings having the same principal characteristics.

1.2. "Thickness class" means all glazings whose component parts have the same thickness within the permitted tolerances.

2. Tests

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2.1. Toughened-glass windscreens

2.1.1. Fragmentation test in accordance with the requirements of Annex B, paragraph 2.

2.1.2. Light transmission measurement in accordance with the requirements of Annex A, paragraph 9.1.

2.1.3. Optical distortion test in accordance with the requirements of Annex A, paragraph 9.2.

2.1.4. Secondary image separation test in accordance with the requirements of Annex A, paragraph 9.3.

2.2. Uniformly-toughened glass panes

2.2.1. Fragmentation test in accordance with the requirements of Annex C, paragraph 2.

2.2.2. Light transmission measurement in accordance with the requirements of Annex A, paragraph 9.1.

2.2.3. In the case of glass panes used as windscreens.

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2.2.3.2. Secondary image separation test in accordance with the requirements of Annex A, paragraph 9.3.

2.3. Ordinary laminated-glass windscreens and glass-plastics windscreens

2.3.1. Headform test in accordance with the requirements of Annex D, paragraph 3.

2.3.2. 2,260 g ball test in accordance with the requirements of Annex D, paragraph 4.2. and Annex A, paragraph 2.2.

2.3.3. Test of resistance to high temperature in accordance with the requirements of Annex A, paragraph 5.

2.3.4. Light transmission measurement in accordance with the requirements of Annex A, paragraph 9.1.

2.3.5. Optical distortion test in accordance with the requirements of Annex A, paragraph 9.2.

2.3.6. Secondary image separation test in accordance with the requirements of Annex A, paragraph 9.3.

2.3.7. In the case of glass-plastics windscreens only:

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2.3.7.2. Resistance-to-humidity test in accordance with the requirements of Annex H, paragraph 3.

2.3.7.3. Test of resistance to chemicals in accordance with the requirements of Annex A, paragraph 1.1.

2.4. Ordinary laminated-glass and glass-plastics panes

2.4.1. 227 g ball test in accordance with the requirements of Annex E, paragraph 4.

2.4.2. Test of resistance to high temperature in accordance with the requirements of Annex A, paragraph 5.

2.4.3. Light transmission measurement in accordance with the requirements of Annex A, paragraph 9.1.

2.4.4. In the case of glass-plastics glazing only:

2.4.4.1. Test of resistance to abrasion in accordance with the requirements of Annex H, paragraph 2.1.

2.4.4.2. Resistance-to-humidity test in accordance with the requirements of Annex H, paragraph 3.

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2.4.5. The above provisions shall be considered to be met if the corresponding tests have been carried out on a windscreen of the same composition.

2.5. Treated laminated-glass windscreens

2.5.1. In addition to the tests prescribed in paragraph 2.3. of this Annex, a fragmentation test shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of Annex G, paragraph 4.

2.6. Safety glazing faced with plastics material

In addition to the tests prescribed in the various paragraphs of this the following tests shall be carried out:

2.6.1. Test of resistance to abrasion in accordance with the requirements of Annex H, paragraph 2.1.

2.6.2. Resistance-to-humidity test in accordance with the requirements of Annex H, paragraph 3.

2.6.3. Test of resistance to chemicals in accordance with the requirements of Annex A, paragraph 11.

2.7. Double-glazed units: The tests to be performed are those specified in this annex for each glass pane composing the double-glazed unit.

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2.8.1. 227g ball drop test in accordance with Annex N, paragraph 5.

2.8.2. Light transmission measurement in accordance with Annex A, paragraph 9.1.

The above test of paragraph 2.8.2. only applies if the glazing is to be used in a location requisite for driving visibility.

2.8.3. The abrasion test in accordance with Annex N, paragraph 6.1.

2.8.4. Cross-cut test in accordance with Annex N, paragraph 6.3.

The above test of paragraph 2.8.4. will be carried out on samples that have not been subjected to test in accordance with paragraph 6.2 of Annex N.

2.9. Flexible plastic glazing other than windscreens

2.8.1. 227 g ball drop test in accordance with Annex O, paragraph 4.

2.9.2. Light transmission measurement in accordance with Annex A, paragraph 9.1.

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2.10. Rigid plastic double glazed units

2.10.1. 227 g ball drop test in accordance with Annex P, paragraph 5.

2.10.2. Light transmission measurement in accordance with Annex A, paragraph 9.1.

The above test of paragraph 2.10.2. only applies if the glazing is to be used in a location requisite for driving visibility.

3. Test pieces

3.1. Fragmentation test

The test shall be carried out on safety glazing at the end of the production run.

3.2. Headform test

The choice of test pieces shall be representative of the production of the various types of windscreen.

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3.3. 2,260 g ball test

The test shall be carried out for each thickness class.

3.4. 227 g ball test

The test pieces shall be cut from finished parts. However, for practical reasons, the tests may be carried out on finished products of parts of them.

3.5. Test of resistance to high temperature

The test pieces shall be cut from finished parts. However, for practical reasons, the tests may be carried out on finished products of parts of them. These shall be selected so that all interlayers are tested proportionately to their use.

The check shall be carried out on at least three samples per colour of interlayer taken from the daily production.

3.6. Light transmission

Representative samples of tinted finished products shall be subjected to this test.

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Alternatively, for toughened-glass, a certificate of compliance with the above requirements may be submitted by the glass supplier.

3.7. Optical distortion and separation of secondary image

Every windscreen shall be inspected for visual defects. In addition, using the methods specified in this Regulation or any method giving similar results, measurements shall be made in the various areas of vision. The test pieces chosen being representative of all production.

3.8. Test of resistance to abrasion

Plastics-surfaced, glass-plastics and plastic glazing only shall be submitted to this test.

3.9. Resistance-to-humidity test

Plastics-surfaced and glass-plastics glazing only shall be submitted to this test.

3.10. Test of resistance to chemicals

Plastics-surfaced and glass-plastics glazing only shall be submitted to this test.

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Only rigid plastic glazing with an abrasion resistant coating shall be submitted to this test. There shall be at least one check per week and per type of plastic material and its coating, on samples that have not been subjected to the test for simulated weathering (Annex N, paragraph 6.2).

 

For each of the windscreens covered by this approval, at least the following particulars shall be provided:

Vehicle manufacturer

Type of vehicle

Vehicle category

Developed area "F"

Height of segment "h"

Curvature "r"

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Seat-back angle "b"

R-point coordinates (xB, yA, zC) relative to the centre of the upper edge of the windscreen.

 

QCVN 34:2017/BGTVT

NATIONAL TECHNICAL REGULATION ON PNEUMATIC TYRES FOR AUTOMOBILES

Foreword

QCVN 34:2017/BGTVT is prepared by Vietnam Register, appraised by the Department of Science and Technology and promulgated by the Ministry of Transport together with the Circular No. 31/2017/TT-BGTVT dated September 22, 2017.

QCVN 34:2017/BGTVT replaces QCVN 34:2011/BGTVT.

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NATIONAL TECHNICAL REGULATION ON PNEUMATIC TYRES FOR AUTOMOBILES

1. GENERAL

1.1. Scope

This Regulation covers specifications for new pneumatic tyres (hereinafter referred to as “tyres”) designed primarily for types of automobiles, trailers and semi-trailers defined in TCVN 6211 “Road vehicles - Types - Terms and definitions”; except for the following:

- tyre types for automobiles with a speed rating less than 60 km/h and over 300 km/h.

- tyre types for racing cars.

1.2. Regulated entities

This Regulation applies to establishments manufacturing and trading in and importing tyres, establishments manufacturing, assembling and importing automobiles, and organizations and individuals related to testing and technical safety inspection of tyres for automobiles.

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For the purposes of this Regulation, the following definitions apply:

 

 

1.3.1. “type of tyre” means a category of tyres which may be deemed to be of the same type if they are of the same brand, are manufactured by the same manufacturer and on the same production line and do not differ in respect of the following main characteristics:

1.3.1.1. Tyre-size designation.

1.3.1.2. Category of use: normal tyre, multiservice tyre, mud and snow tyre, special use tyre, temporary-use spare tyre.

1.3.1.3. Structure: diagonal (bias-ply), bias-belted, radial-ply, reinforced, run flat tyre.

1.3.1.4. Speed category.

1.3.1.5. Load-capacity indices.

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1.3.2. “structure of a tyre”: A distinction is made between the following structures in particular (Figure 1)

1.3.2.1. diagonal or bias-ply describes a pneumatic tyre structure in which the ply cords extend to the beads and are laid at alternate angles substantially less than 90° to the centreline of the tread.

1.3.2.2. bias-belted describes a pneumatic-tyre structure of diagonal (bias-ply) type in which the carcass is restricted by a belt comprising two or more layers of substantially inextensible cord material laid at alternate angles close to those of the carcass.

1.3.2.3. radial describes a pneumatic tyre structure in which the ply cords extend to the beads and are laid substantially at 90° to the centreline of the tread, the carcass being stabilized by an essentially inextensible circumferential belt.

1.3.2.4. reinforced describes a pneumatic-tyre structure in which the carcass is more resistant than that of the corresponding standard tyre.

1.3.2.5. run flat tyre or self supporting tyre describes an assembly of specified functionally dependent components, including a tyre, which together provide the specified performance granting the vehicle with the basic tyre functions, at least, at a speed of 80 km/h (50 mph) and a distance of 80 km when operating in flat tyre running mode at an inflation pressure of less than 70 kPa.

1.3.3. “bead” means the part of a pneumatic tyre which is of such shape and structure as to fit the rim and to hold the tyre on it.

1.3.4. “cord” means the strands forming the fabric of the plies in the pneumatic tyre.

1.3.5. “ply” means a layer of rubber-coated parallel cords.

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1.3.7. “tread” means that part of a pneumatic tyre which comes into contact with the ground, protects the carcass against mechanical damage and contributes to ground adhesion.

1.3.8. “sidewall” means the part of a pneumatic tyre between the tread and the area designed to be covered by the rim flange.

1.3.9. “tread groove” means the space between two adjacent ribs and/or blocks in the tread pattern.

1.3.10. “principal grooves” means the wide grooves positioned in the central zone of the tyre tread.

1.3.11. “section width S” means the linear distance between the outsides of the sidewalls of an inflated pneumatic tyre, excluding elevations due to labelling (marking), decoration or protective bands or ribs.

1.3.12. “over-all width” means the linear distance between the outsides of the sidewalls of an inflated pneumatic tyre, including markings, embellishments, decoration and protective bands or ribs; and in the case of tyres where the tread is wider than the section width, the overall width corresponds to the tread width.

1.3.13. “section height H” means a distance equal to half the difference between the outer diameter of the tyre and the nominal rim diameter.

1.3.14. “nominal aspect ratio (Ra)” means one hundred times the number obtained by dividing the number expressing the section height (H) by the number expressing the nominal section width (S1), both dimensions expressed in the same units.

1.3.15. “outer diameter D” means the overall diameter of an inflated new pneumatic tyre specified by the manufacturer.

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1.3.16.1. The nominal section width (S1). This width must be expressed in mm, except in the case of types of tyre for which the size designation is shown in the first column of the tables in Annex E to this Regulation.

1.3.16.2. The nominal aspect ratio (Ra), except in the case of certain types of tyre for which the size designation is shown in the first column of the tables in Annex E to this Regulation.

1.3.16.3. A conventional number "d" (the "d" symbol), denoting the nominal diameter of the rim on which a tyre is mounted and corresponding to its diameter expressed either in codes (number below 100) or in millimetres (numbers above 100).

An example given for how to read tyre size: A tyre size reads 205/75R17, then:

S1 = 205 mm;

Ra = 75 (the section height of the tyre is 75% of the nominal section width);

R stands for Radial;

17 is the diameter of the wheel rim on which the tyre is mounted

The "d" symbol is the nominal diameter of the rim, expressed in mm, corresponding to the code mentioned in Table 1.

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Figure 1. Cross-section

 

Table 1. d code

Code

Nominal rim diameter “d”

8

203

9

229

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254

11

279

12

305

13

330

14

356

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381

16

406

17

432

18

457

19

483

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508

21

533

22

559

23

584

24

610

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635

14.5

368

16.5

419

17.5

445

19.5

495

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521

22.5

572

24.5

622

1.3.17. “nominal rim diameter “d”” means the diameter of the rim on which a tyre is designed to be mounted.

1.3.18. “rim” means the support for a tyre-and-tube assembly, or for a tubeless tyre, on which support the tyre beads are seated.

1.3.19. “theoretical rim” means a rim whose width would be equal to x times the nominal section width of a tyre. The value of x shall be specified by the manufacturer of the tyre.

1.3.20. “measuring rim” means the rim on which a tyre must be fitted for dimensional measurements.

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1.3.22. “chunking” means the breaking away of pieces of rubber from the tread.

1.3.23. “cord separation” means the parting of the cords from their coating.

1.3.24. “ply separation” means the parting of adjacent plies.

1.3.25. “tread separation” means the pulling away of the tread from the carcass.

1.3.26. “load-capacity index” means a number associated to the reference mass a tyre can carry at the speed corresponding to the associated speed category and when operated in conformity with requirements governing utilization specified by the manufacturer. The list of these indices and their corresponding loads is given in Annex A.

1.3.27. “table load-capacity variation with speed” means the table, in Annex D, which shows, by reference to indices of load capacity and of load capacity and of capacity at nominal speed, load variations of a tyre if used at speeds other than those corresponding to that indicated by the nominal speed category

1.3.28. “speed category” means the maximum speed which the tyre can sustain, expressed by speed category symbol (see table below).

Table 2. Speed Category Symbol

Speed category symbol

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C

60

D

65

E

70

F

80

G

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J

100

K

110

L

120

M

130

N

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P

150

Q

160

R

170

S

180

T

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U

200

H

210

V

240

W

270

Y

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1.3.29. “normal tyre” means a tyre intended for normal on-road use.

1.3.30. “snow tyre” means a tyre whose tread pattern and whose structure are primarily designed to ensure in mud and fresh or melting snow a performance better than that of a normal tyre. The tread pattern of a snow tyre generally consists of groove (rib) and/or solid-block elements more widely spaced than on a normal tyre. This tyre is identified by a combination of the letters “M” and “S”. For example “M+S” or “M.S” or “M&S”.

1.3.31. “multiservice “MST” tyre” means a tyre intended for service in normal on-road and off-road conditions.

1.3.32. “special use tyre” means a tyre intended for service in off-road conditions. This tyre is identified by "ET" or "ML" or "MPT".

1.3.33. “temporary use spare tyre” means a tyre different from a tyre intended to be fitted to any vehicle for normal driving conditions but intended only for temporary use under restricted driving conditions.

1.3.34. “T-type temporary use spare tyre” means a type of temporary use spare tyre designed for use at inflation pressures higher than those established for standard and reinforced tyres.

1.3.35. “reinforced tyre” means a tyre designed to operate at higher loads than the corresponding standard tyre.

1.3.36. “maximum load rating” means the maximum mass the tyre is rated to carry:

1.3.36.1. for speed not exceeding 210 km/h the maximum load rating shall not exceed the value associated with the load capacity index of the tyre.

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Table 3. Load Rating for tyres designated for speeds 215 to 240 km/h

Maximum speed (km/h)

Maximum load rating (%)

215

98,5

220

97,0

225

95,5

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94,0

235

92,5

240

91,0

For intermediate maximum speeds linear interpolations of the maximum load rating are allowed.

1.3.36.3. for speed higher than 210 km/h, but not exceeding 270 km/h, (tyres classified with speed category symbol W) the maximum load rating shall not exceed the percentage of the value associated with the load capacity index of the tyre, indicated in the table below, with reference to the speed capability of the car to which the tyre is fitted.

Table 4. Load Rating for tyres designated for speeds 240 to 270 km/h

Maximum speed (km/h)

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240

100,0

250

95,0

260

90,0

270

85,0

For intermediate maximum speeds linear interpolations of the maximum load rating are allowed.

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Table 5. Load Rating for tyres designated for speeds 270 to 300 km/h

Maximum speed (km/h)

Maximum load rating (%)

270

100,0

280

95,0

290

90,0

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85,0

For speeds in excess of 300 km/h, the maximum load rating must not exceed the mass specified by the tyre manufacturer with reference to the speed capacity of the tyre. For intermediate speeds between 300 km/h and the maximum speed permitted by the tyre manufacturer, a linear interpolation of the maximum load rating applies.

1.3.37. “bead separation” means a breakdown of bond between components in the bead area.

1.3.38. “belt separation” means the parting of rubber compound between belt layers or between belts and plies.

1.3.39. “cracking” means any parting within the tread, sidewall or innerliner of the tyre that may extend to cord material.

1.3.40. “inner liner separation” means the parting of inner liner from cord material.

1.3.41. “open splice” means any parting at any junction of tread, sidewall or inner liner that may extend to cord material.

1.3.42. “sidewall separation” means the parting of the rubber compound from the cord material in the sidewall.

1.3.43. “test-drum speed” means the speed of the outer face of the steel drum used for tyre testing.

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1.3.45. “maximum speed” means the speed corresponding to the speed category symbol or the maximum speed of the tyre specified by the manufacturer.

1.3.46. “test drum” means a drum having a diameter of 1.7 m ± 1% or 2.0 m ± 1%. The surface of the drum shall be of smooth steel. The width of the test surface shall exceed the overall width of the test tyre.  For the test drum, the speed capability of the equipment shall be adequate for the requirements of the test methods.

1.3.47. “loading device” means a dead-weight cantilevered system with a hydraulic system or with any other equivalent system. The accuracy is within ± 1.5 % of the full scale and the accuracy of the speed is within ± 3 % of the full scale.

1.3.48. “tread wear indicators” mean projections within the tread grooves designed to give a visual indication of the degree of wear of the tread.

2. TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS

Tyres must be inspected, tested and compliant with the regulations set out in 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3 below:

2.1. General requirements

2.1.1. Markings

Tyres bear on both side walls in the case of symmetrical tyres and at least on the outer side wall in the case of asymmetrical tyres

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2.1.1.2. The tyre-size designation as defined in paragraph 1.3.16 of this Regulation.

2.1.1.3. An indication of the structure as follows:

- On diagonal (bias-ply) tyres: “-” or the letter “D” placed in front of the rim diameter marking.

- on radial-ply tyres, the letter "R" placed in front of the rim-diameter marking, and, optionally, the word “RADIAL”. On tyres suitable for speeds in excess of 240 km/h, the letter “R” may be replaced with the inscription “ZR”.

2.1.1.4. The speed-category symbol.

2.1.1.5. The load-capacity indices.

2.1.1.6. The inscription “M+S” or “M.S” or “M&S” in the case of a snow tyre.

2.1.1.7. The word “REINFORCED” or the words “EXTRA LOAD” if the tyre is a reinforced tyre.

2.1.1.8. The inscription “ET” or “ML” or “MPT” if the tyre is classified in the category of use “special”.

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2.1.1.10. The date of manufacture in the form of a group of four digits, the first two showing the week and the last two the year of manufacture.

2.1.1.11. The pressure index must be written on the sidewall. If the pressure index is not written on the sidewall of a passenger car tyre, the pressure index registered by the manufacturer may be used. The relation between the pressure index and the units of pressure is specified in Annex B.

2.1.1.12. In the case of temporary use spare tyres, the words “TEMPORARY USE ONLY” in upper case characters at least 12.7 mm high. In addition, in the case of “T” type temporary use spare tyres, the legend “INFLATE TO 420 kPa (60 psi)”, the upper case characters being at least 12.7 mm high.

2.1.1.13. The symbol below if the tyre is a “run flat” or “self supporting” tyre, where “h” is at least 12 mm.

2.1.2. Tread-wear indicators

The pneumatic tyre shall include not less than six transverse rows of wear indicators, approximately equally spaced and situated in the principal grooves of the tread. The tread-wear indicators shall be such that they cannot be confused with the rubber ridges between the ribs or blocks of the tread.

However, in the case of tyres of dimensions appropriate for mounting on rims of a nominal diameter of 12 or less, four rows of tread-wear indicators shall be accepted.

The tread-wear indicators must provide a means of indicating, with a tolerance of + 0.60/-0.00 mm, when the tread grooves are no longer more than 1.6 mm deep.

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2.2 Dimensions of tyres

Dimensions of a tyre must conform to the standard issued by the manufacturer and written on the tyre.

2.2.1. Section width of a tyre

2.2.1.1. The section width shall be calculated by the following formula:

S = S1 + K (A - A1)             (1)

Where:

- S is the “section width” expressed in mm and measured on the measuring rim;

- S1 is the “nominal section width” (in mm) as shown on the side wall of the tyre in the designation of the tyre as prescribed;

- A is the width (expressed in mm) of the measuring rim, as specified by the manufacturer;

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- K shall be taken to equal 0.4.

For the existing types of tyres whose designation is given in the first column of the tables in Annex E to this Regulation, the section width shall be deemed to be that given opposite the tyre designation in those tables.

2.2.1.2. Tyre section-width specifications:

The overall width of a tyre may be less than the section width determined pursuant to paragraph 2.2.1.1 above.

It may exceed that value by the following percentages :

a) For passenger cars and passenger car trailers:

- in diagonal (bias-ply) tyres: 6%;

- in radial ply tyres: 4%.

- in addition, if the tyre has special protective ribs (or bands), the figure as increased by the above tolerance may be exceeded by 8 mm.

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- in diagonal (bias-ply) tyres: 8%;

- in radial ply tyres: 4%.

- in addition, for tyres with nominal section width exceeding 305 mm intended for dual mounting:

+ in diagonal (bias-ply) tyres: 4%;

+ in radial ply tyres: 2%.

2.2.2. Outer diameter of a tyre

2.2.2.1. The tyre outer diameter shall be calculated by the following formula: D = d + 2H (2)

Where:

- D is the outer diameter in mm;

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- H is the nominal section height in mm, equal to: S1 x 0,01 Ra.                (3)

Where:

+ S1 is the nominal section width in mm;

+ Ra is the nominal aspect ratio.

For the types of tyres for which the designation is given in the first column of the tables of Annex E to this Regulation the outer diameter shall be that given opposite the ‘size’ designation in these tables.

2.2.2.2. Tyre outer diameter specifications:

The outer-diameter of a tyre must not be outside the values Dmin and Dmax obtained from the following formula:

Dmin = d + (2H x a)              (4)

Dmax = d + (2H x b)             (5)

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a) for sizes listed in Annex E:

H = 0,5 (D - d)                      (6)

b) for other sizes, not listed in Annex E:

“H” and “d” are as defined in paragraph 2.2.2.1

c) Coefficients “a” and “b” are respectively:

- Coefficient a = 0.97

- Coefficient b:

Table 6. Coefficient b

Type of tyre

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Diagonal

Normal use tyres

1.04

Passenger cars and trailers being towed by passenger cars

Other types of automobiles, and semi-trailers being towed by them

1,08

1,07

Special use tyres

1.06

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d) For snow tyres the outer diameter (Dmax) established in conformity with the above may be exceeded by 1%.

2.2.3. Procedure for measuring tyre dimensions

2.2.3.1. The tyre is mounted on the measuring rim specified by the manufacturer pursuant to paragraph 3.2.1.12 of this Regulation and is inflated to a pressure as follows:

a) For passenger cars and trailers being towed by passenger cars:

- Inflate the tyre to 300 to 350 kPa.

- Adjust the pressure as follows:

+ in standard bias-belted tyres: to 170 kPa.

+ in diagonal (bias-ply) tyres: to:

Table 7. Adjusted pressure

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Pressure

Speed category

L,M,N

P,Q,R,S

T,U,H,V

4

170

200

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210

240

260

8

250

280

300

+ in standard radial tyres: to 180 kPa.

+ in reinforced tyres: to 230 kPa.

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b) For other types of automobiles, and semi-trailers being towed by them:

- Inflate and adjust the pressure to the value specified by the manufacturer pursuant to paragraph 3.2.1.13.

2.2.3.2. The tyre fitted on its rim is conditioned to the ambient temperature of the laboratory for at least 24 hours.

2.2.3.3. The overall width is measured by caliper at six equally-spaced points, account being taken of the thickness of the protective ribs or bands. The highest measurement so obtained is taken as the overall width.

2.2.3.4. The outer diameter is determined by measuring the maximum circumference and dividing the figure so obtained by π (3.1416).

2.3. Load/speed endurance test

2.3.1. The pneumatic tyre shall undergo a load/speed endurance test carried out by the procedure described in Annex C to this Regulation.

2.3.2. A tyre which after undergoing the load/speed endurance test does not exhibit any tread separation, ply separation, cord separation, chunking or broken cords shall be deemed to have passed the test.

2.3.3. The outer diameter of the tyre, measured six hours after the load/speed endurance test, must not differ by more than ± 3.5% from the outer diameter as measured before the test.

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3.1. Inspection and testing methods

Newly-manufactured, assembled and imported tyres must undergo inspection and testing according to the Circular No. 30/2011/TT-BGTVT dated April 15, 2011 and Circular No. 54/2014/TT-BGTVT dated October 20, 2014 of the Minister of Transport. In the cases where any of the documents referred to in this Regulations is amended or replaced, the newest one shall apply.

3.2. Technical documentation and test samples

When applying for a test, the tyre manufacturer or importer shall provide the testing facility with technical documentation and test samples as prescribed in 3.2.1 and 3.2.2.

3.2.1. Technical documentation

Technical documentation and drawings shall specify:

3.2.1.1. The trade name or mark;

3.2.1.2. The tyre-size designation as defined in paragraph 1.3.16 of this Regulation;

3.2.1.3. The category of use (normal or special use tyre, snow tyre or temporary-use spare tyre);

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3.2.1.5. The speed category;

3.2.1.6. The load-capacity indices;

3.2.1.7. Pressure index;

3.2.1.8. Whether the tyre is to be used with or without an inner tube;

3.2.1.9. Whether the tyre is